Amphioxus Dopamine

Cross references:   Amphioxus Neurotransmitters       Amphioxus      Dopamine       
Dopamine Receptors    Tyrosine Hydroxylase       Dopaminergic Cell Groups   
Dopamine Hypothesis     

   "amphioxus dopamine"                   
        PubMed = 7           
        Google = 185,000   

PubMed 1:
     Characterisation of AmphiAmR11, an amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae) D2-dopamine-like G protein-coupled receptor

PubMed 2:
     Amphioxus expresses both vertebrate-type and invertebrate-type dopamine D(1) receptors.

PubMed 3:
     Identification and characterization of a novel amphioxus dopamine D-like receptor

PubMed 5:
     AmphiD1/beta, a dopamine D1/beta-adrenergic receptor from the amphioxus Branchiostoma floridae: evolutionary aspects of the catecholaminergic system during development.
    See:  Amphioxus Receptors .     

PubMed 6:
     Distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine, and serotonin in the central nervous system of amphioxus (Branchiostoma lanceolatum): implications for the evolution of catecholamine systems in vertebrates.
    See: Amphioxus Neurotransmitters  .   
The overall distribution of dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems is similar in amphioxus and vertebrate central nervous system and could be an ancestral character of chordates."  

PubMed 7:
     Evolution of monoamine receptors and the origin of motivational and emotional systems in vertebrates
    "These data suggest that a D1/beta receptor gene duplication was required to elaborate novel catecholamine psychomotor adaptive responses and that a noradrenergic system specifically emerged at the origin of vertebrate evolution."  

Google page 1:   
    All of the references had already been identified by PubMed, above. 

Google page 2:   
   Three interesting references: 


British Library EThOS : Thesis Details - The identification and characterisation of aminergic G-protein coupled receptors from amphioxus   

   Evolution of Dopamine Receptor Genes of the D1 Class in Vertebrates   

Google page 3:   

    Frontiers | The Evolution of Dopamine Systems in Chordates | Frontiers in Neuroanatomy   

    "In adult amphioxus, three distinct DA cell populations have been identified. Two of them are in the cerebral vesicle (population 1 and 2) and one in the posterior brain (population 3)"      
The antero-dorsal population 1 is located close to photoreceptors, and it sends short projections ventrally to the central canal, in a manner reminiscent of some hypothalamic neurons in vertebrates. The population 2 is located more medially and laterally in the cerebral vesicle, and it sends projections to the posterior brain and the spinal cord. It could play a role in modulating the activity of the motor pattern generator in this animal. The third population is located in the posterior cerebral vesicle, and exhibits similarities with the area postrema of the vertebrate hindbrain."