Amphioxus Locomotion

Cross references:       Early Behavior       Amphioxus    Amphioxus Behavior   
Amphioxus Nervous System    Amphioxus Motor Nerves  
Ventral Motor Neurons    Dorsal Motor Neurons  
Primary Motor Center       
Motor Nerve Organization    Amphioxus Hormone-Nerve Interaction  
Amphioxus Muscles      Amphioxus Fast-Slow Twitch   

Lamprey Locomotion
  
Salamander Locomotion      Subcortical Brain    


Although the Lamprey Nervous System  is much more similar to ours, the Amphioxus Nervous System  is interesting, so I'm going to start there.   


The long list of links in "Cross references", above, to pages in  Children of the Amphioxus  is intended to provide general background to amphioxus locomotion. 


amphioxus locomotion - Google Search 
- 25,000 references   
https://www.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl#q=amphioxus+locomotion&start=0         

amphioxus locomotion - Mozilla Yahoo Search Results - 48,000 references  
2001
New perspectives on the evolution of protochordate sensory and locomotory systems, and the origin of brains and heads.   
Free PMC Article                       "Cephalochordates (i.e. amphioxus) are segmented and resemble vertebrates in having two distinct locomotory modes, slow for distance swimming and fast for escape, that depend on separate sets of motor neurons and muscle cells. The sense organs of both amphioxus and tunicate larvae serve essentially as navigational aids ..." 
    "Similarities between amphioxus and tunicate sense organs are then most easily explained if distance swimming evolved before and escape behaviour after the two lineages diverged, leaving tunicates to adopt more passive means of avoiding predation.

    Also:  Amphioxus Evolution  and  Amphioxus Fast-Slow Twitch 


2002   
Dorsal Compartment Locomotory Control System (PubMed) 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11948671   
    See:  Dorsal Motor Neurons 


2003 
Ventral neurons in the anterior nerve cord ... I (PubMed) 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12833380   
  Please see: 
Ventral Motor Neurons


2003   
Ventral neurons in the anterior nerve cord of amphioxus larvae. II. Further data on the pacemaker circuit. (Goog)
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/104528758/abstract   
  or     
    Please see:   Ventral Motor Neurons


2006    
Tuning and playing a motor rhythm: how metabotropic glutamate receptors orchestrate generation of motor patterns in the mammalian central nervous system (Goog)

http://jp.physoc.org/content/572/2/323.full 

Full length HTML available online for free. 
    Please see:  
Amphioxus Glutamate  .


2008
The cholinergic gene locus in amphioxus: molecular characterization and developmental expression patterns.   
    "Amphioxus has three types of motoneurons, ventral compartment (VC) motoneurons, which innervate the fast fibers of the myotome, dorsal compartment (DC) ones, which innervate the slow fibers, and visceral motoneurons, which innervate all other body muscles "   
My comment
   
Searching Google for "fast twitch muscles" yielded 1,120,000 claimed hits.   Are human fast and slow twitch muscles innervated by different nerves? 
    See:
Muscle Innervation  and  Amphioxus Fast-Slow Twitch  .         





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