Amphioxus Stress Hormones

Cross references:   Amphioxus Hormones   Endostyle = Thyroid   
Amphioxus Gut Hormones      Lamellar Body = Pineal Gland   Amphioxus Pituitary      
Amphioxus Gonads   
  Amphioxus Oxytocin        Amphioxus Genomics       
ACTH   Cortisol    Glucocorticoid      Stress Evolution 

Stress hormone (Wiki) 
This article on human stress hormones is provided for reference. 

The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and
cephalochordate biology  
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     "The primary vertebrate endocrine organs (pineal gland, ovary, testis, endostyle/thyroid, brain, gut, and pituitary) have structurally simpler homologs in amphioxus.
    "The stress response in vertebrates depends on the adrenal medulla for epinephrine and on the adrenal cortex for cortisol. Adrenal cortex function in vertebrates is controlled by the brain (corticotropin-releasing hormone, CRH) and pituitary ACTH. Although amphioxus lacks a discrete adrenal gland, it possesses genes for catecholamine synthesis and for adrenergic receptors, suggesting that some cells may synthesize epinephrine.
    However, most of the stress-response genes (CRH, ACTH, ACTH receptor, cortisol and its receptor) are missing in amphioxus and have not been found in either Ciona or sea urchins. In addition, amphioxus also lacks a gene for the enzyme 21-hydroxylase (CYP21), necessary to synthesize cortisol precursors ... The only component present in all three invertebrates is similar to the CRH receptor.
    For more from this paper, see: Amphioxus Genomics