Emotion

Cross references;   
Neuropsychology       Boys without Fathers      Subcortical Brain  
Pleasure        Nociception (Pain)      Human Dominance Hierarchies
Human Asymmetry  
   Emotional Habits   

Learned Behavior      Displacement   
Entitlement     Personality  
    


Searching Google for "emotion" located 157,000,000 references:
https://www.google.com/search?q=emotion&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8  


Emotion - Wikipedia   
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emotion   

Contents

  • 1 Etymology, definitions, and differentiation
  • 2 Components
  • 3 Classification
  • 4 Theories

  • James–Lange theory

    Main article: James–Lange theory

    In his 1884 article[39] William James argued that feelings and emotions were secondary to physiological phenomena. In his theory, James proposed that the perception of what he called an "exciting fact" directly led to a physiological response, known as "emotion."[40] To account for different types of emotional experiences, James proposed that stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system, which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain. The Danish psychologist Carl Lange also proposed a similar theory at around the same time, and therefore this theory became known as the James–Lange theory. As James wrote, "the perception of bodily changes, as they occur, is the emotion." James further claims that "we feel sad because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble, and either we cry, strike, or tremble because we are sorry, angry, or fearful, as the case may be."[39]

    An example of this theory in action would be as follows: An emotion-evoking stimulus (snake) triggers a pattern of physiological response (increased heart rate, faster breathing, etc.), which is interpreted as a particular emotion (fear). This theory is supported by experiments in which by manipulating the bodily state induces a desired emotional state.[41] Some people may believe that emotions give rise to emotion-specific actions, for example, "I'm crying because I'm sad," or "I ran away because I was scared." The issue with the James–Lange theory is that of causation (bodily states causing emotions and being a priori), not that of the bodily influences on emotional experience (which can be argued and is still quite prevalent today in biofeedback studies and embodiment theory).[42]

    Although mostly abandoned in its original form, Tim Dalgleish argues that most contemporary neuroscientists have embraced the components of the James-Lange theory of emotions.[43]

    The James–Lange theory has remained influential. Its main contribution is the emphasis it places on the embodiment of emotions, especially the argument that changes in the bodily concomitants of emotions can alter their experienced intensity. Most contemporary neuroscientists would endorse a modified James–Lange view in which bodily feedback modulates the experience of emotion." (p. 583) 


  • Cannon–Bard theory

    Main article: Cannon–Bard theory

    Walter Bradford Cannon agreed that physiological responses played a crucial role in emotions, but did not believe that physiological responses alone could explain subjective emotional experiences. He argued that physiological responses were too slow and often imperceptible and this could not account for the relatively rapid and intense subjective awareness of emotion.[44] He also believed that the richness, variety, and temporal course of emotional experiences could not stem from physiological reactions, that reflected fairly undifferentiated fight or flight responses.[45][46] An example of this theory in action is as follows: An emotion-evoking event (snake) triggers simultaneously both a physiological response and a conscious experience of an emotion.

    Phillip Bard contributed to the theory with his work on animals. Bard found that sensory, motor, and physiological information all had to pass through the diencephalon (particularly the thalamus), before being subjected to any further processing. Therefore, Cannon also argued that it was not anatomically possible for sensory events to trigger a physiological response prior to triggering conscious awareness and emotional stimuli had to trigger both physiological and experiential aspects of emotion simultaneously.[45]


  • 5 Genetics
  • 6 Neurocircuitry
  • 7 Disciplinary approaches
  • 8 Notable theorists
  • 9 See also
  • 10 References
  • 11 Further reading
  • 12 External links


Emotions - Changing Minds 
http://changingminds.org/explanations/emotions/emotions.htm  

    Emotions are our feelings. Literally. We feel them in our bodies as tingles, hot spots and muscular tension. There are cognitive aspects, but the physical sensation is what makes them really different.

Articles on emotion include:

A basic of much emotional arousal is that there is a goal at stake somewhere. Our emotions thus cause us to want and not want. And when we have what we wanted, we then have emotions about owning it.

Some emotions are discussed in more detail here:

Emotions often lead to coping activities. When we feel something, we consequently respond to that feeling. This can be both in the immediate (and often subconscious) response to the feeling and also in the more thoughtful handling of the aftermath. Where this has been a negative feeling, the response may range from vigorous justification of our actions to conciliatory apologies and other 'making up'. A common response to the repression of unwanted emotions is displacement, where we act out our frustration in other ways. Thus a reprimanded child, knowing they cannot answer back, may go and 'punish' their toys. Emotions affect and are a part of our mood, which is usually a more sustained emotional state. Mood affects our judgment and changes how we  
    See also:  Displacement    As anger is so hazardous, we often find other ways to vent it, displaced either in time or location. For example a person who is frustrated at work may be angry with their family, or perhaps will avoid this by going for a run immediately when they get home.   *  
    Displacement is a huge source of continued human strife, as we pass on our anger to other people, who do likewise.

Theories about emotion, Using Body Language, Plutchik's Ten Postulates, Pressing Buttons, Attention and Emotion

Blogs by subject: Emotions



What Are the 6 Major Theories of Emotion?   
https://www.verywell.com/theories-of-emotion-2795717   
    "What Is Emotion?   In psychology, emotion is often defined as a complex state of feeling that results in physical and psychological changes that influence thought and behavior.   
    Emotionality is associated with a range of psychological phenomena, including temperament, personality, mood, and motivation. According to author David G. Meyers, human emotion involves "...physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience." Theories of Emotion 
The major theories of motivation can be grouped into three main categories: physiological, neurological, and cognitive. Physiological theories suggest that responses within the body are responsible for emotions. Neurological theories propose that activity within the brain leads to emotional responses. Finally, cognitive theories argue that thoughts and other mental activity play an essential role in forming emotions.

Evolutionary Theory of Emotion
    It was naturalist Charles Darwin who proposed that emotions evolved because they were adaptive and allowed humans and animals to survive and reproduce. Feelings of love and affection lead people to seek mates and reproduce. 
Feelings of fear compel people to either fight or flee the source of danger.
    According to the evolutionary theory of emotion, our emotions exist because they serve an adaptive role. Emotions motivate people to respond quickly to stimuli in the environment, which helps improve the chances of success and survival.
    Understanding the emotions of other people and animals also plays a crucial role in safety and survival. If you encounter a hissing, spitting, and clawing animal, chances are you will quickly realize that the animal is frightened or defensive and leave it alone. By being able to interpret correctly the emotional displays of other people and animals, you can respond correctly and avoid danger.

The James-Lange Theory of Emotion
    The James-Lange theory is one of the best-known examples of a physiological theory of emotion. Independently proposed by psychologist William James and physiologist Carl Lange, the James-Lange theory of emotion suggests that emotions occur as a result of physiological reactions to events.
    This theory suggests that when you see an external stimulus that leads to a physiological reaction. Your emotional reaction is dependent upon how you interpret those physical reactions. For example, suppose you are walking in the woods and you see a grizzly bear. You begin to tremble, and your heart begins to race. The James-Lange theory proposes that you will interpret your physical reactions and conclude that you are frightened ("I am trembling. Therefore, I am afraid"). According to this theory of emotion, you are not trembling because you are frightened.   Instead, you feel frightened because you are trembling.

The Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
    Another well-known physiological theory is the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion. Walter Cannon disagreed with the James-Lange theory of emotion on several different grounds. First, he suggested, people can experience physiological reactions linked to emotions without actually feeling those emotions. For example, your heart might race because you have been exercising and not because you are afraid.
    Cannon also suggested that emotional responses occur much too quickly for them to be simply products of physical states.  When you encounter a danger in the environment, you will often feel afraid before you start to experience the physical symptoms associated with fear such as shaking hands, rapid breathing, and a racing heart.
    Cannon first proposed his theory in the 1920s and his work was later expanded on by physiologist Philip Bard during the 1930s. According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, we feel emotions and experience physiological reactions such as sweating, trembling, and muscle tension simultaneously.
    More specifically, it is suggested that emotions result when the thalamus sends a message to the brain in response to a stimulus, resulting in a physiological reaction. At the same time, the brain also receives signals triggering the emotional experience. Cannon and Bard’s theory suggests that the physical and psychological experience of emotion happen at the same time and that one does not cause the other.

Schachter-Singer Theory
    Also known as the two-factor theory of emotion, the Schachter-Singer Theory is an example of a cognitive theory of emotion. This theory suggests that the physiological arousal occurs first, and then the individual must identify the reason for this arousal to experience and label it as an emotion. A stimulus leads to a physiological response that is then cognitively interpreted and labeled which results in an emotion.
    Schachter and Singer’s theory draws on both the James-Lange theory and the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion. Like the James-Lange theory, the Schachter-Singer theory proposes that people do infer emotions based on physiological responses. The critical factor is the situation and the cognitive interpretation that people use to label that emotion.
    Like the Cannon-Bard theory, the Schachter-Singer theory also suggests that similar physiological responses can produce varying emotions. For example, if you experience a racing heart and sweating palms during an important math exam, you will probably identify the emotion as anxiety. If you experience the same physical responses on a date with your significant other, you might interpret those responses as love, affection, or arousal.

Cognitive Appraisal Theory

    According to appraisal theories of emotion, thinking must occur first before experiencing emotion. Richard Lazarus was a pioneer in this area of emotion, and this theory is often referred to as the Lazarus theory of emotion.
    According to this theory, the sequence of events first involves a stimulus, followed by thought which then leads to the simultaneous experience of a physiological response and the emotion. For example, if you encounter a bear in the woods, you might immediately begin to think that you are in great danger. This then leads to the emotional experience of fear and the physical reactions associated with the fight-or-flight response.    

Facial-Feedback Theory of Emotion
    The facial-feedback theory of emotions suggests that facial expressions are connected to experiencing emotions. Charles Darwin and William James both noted early on that sometimes physiological responses often had a direct impact on emotion, rather than simply being a consequence of the emotion. Supporters of this theory suggest that emotions are directly tied to changes in facial muscles. For example, people who are forced to smile pleasantly at a social function will have a better time at the event than they would if they had frowned or carried a more neutral facial expression."  




Searching PubMed for "emotion" located 231,567 references:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=emotion


Searching PubMed for "emotion physiology" located 70,655 references:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=emotion+physiology   


Searching PubMed for "emotion neurology" located 4.496 references: 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=emotion+neurology   


Searching PubMed for "emotion endocrinology" located, at first, 667 and then 670 references: 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=emotion+endocrinology   
   


Searching PubMed for "emotion oxytocin" located 822 references: 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=emotion+oxytocin   


Searching PubMed for "emotion testosterone" located 833 references: 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=emotion+testosterone   


Searching PubMed for "emotion estrogen" located 1,262 references: 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=emotion+estrogen   





Starting with the smallest set of references: 


Searching PubMed for "emotion endocrinology" located, at first, 667, and then 670 references: 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=emotion+endocrinology   
   


1989    655<667   
Effects of l-tryptophan and various diets on behavioral functions in essential hypertensives 


1989    652<667 
Mood cyclicity in women with an without the premenstrual syndrome.   


1992    648<667   
The concepts of stress and stress system disorders. Overview of physical and behavioral homeostasis 


1992   645<670   
Neuropsychiatric effects of anabolic steroids in male normal volunteers. 


1995    631<670 
Neuroendocrinology and pathophysiology of the stress system. 


1996    628<670   
Prenatal psychosocial factors and the neuroendocrine axis in human pregnancy.  


1997    619<670   
Central oxytocin administration reduces stress-induced corticosterone release and anxiety behavior in rats. 


1997    618<670   
Psychological distress in patients with hyperprolactinaemia 


1998    616<670 
Emotional aspects of hyperprolactinemia.  


1998    610<670 
Estrogen-serotonin interactions: implications for affective regulation. 


1998    609<670   
Roles of estrogen receptor-alpha gene expression in reproduction-related behaviors in female mice. 



1999    606<670 
Effects of thyroxine as compared with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine in patients with hypothyroidism. 


1999    605<670   
Dehydroepiandrosterone treatment of midlife dysthymia. 


1999    603>670 
Cerebrospinal fluid somatostatin, mood, and cognition in multiple sclerosis. 


2000    595<670   
Serum concentrations of some neuroactive steroids in women suffering from mixed anxiety-depressive disorder. 


2000    594>670   
Improvement in mood and fatigue after dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in Addison's disease in a randomized, double blind trial. 



2001    593<670 
Prenatal glucocorticoid programming of brain corticosteroid receptors and corticotrophin-releasing hormone: possible implications for behaviour.   


2002    579<670 
Depression and anxiety in hyperthyroidism. 


2003    574<670 
Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of high-dose anabolic steroid administration in male normal volunteers. 


2003    573<670 
Children with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia have decreased amygdala volume: potential prenatal and postnatal hormonal effects. 
    Interesting. 


2003    572<670 
Female oxytocin-deficient mice display enhanced anxiety-related behavior. 


2003    561<670 
Stress integration after acute and chronic predator stress: differential activation of central stress circuitry and sensitization of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis.


2004    559<670    Free full text   
Psychological functioning after growth hormone therapy in adult growth hormone deficient patients: endocrine and body composition correlates. 


2005    522<670 
Modulation of anxiety circuits by serotonergic systems. 


2006    513>670 
Gonadal steroid modulation of stress-induced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal activity and anxiety behavior: role of central oxytocin. 


2006    512<670   
Exposure to repetitive versus varied stress during prenatal development generates two distinct anxiogenic and neuroendocrine profiles in adulthood 


2006    509<670   
Altered coordination of the neuroendocrine response during psychosocial stress in subjects with high trait anxiety   


2006    508<670   
Psychological well-being correlates with free thyroxine but not free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine levels in patients on thyroid hormone replacement. 


2008    452<670    Free PMC Article   
A novel mouse model for acute and long-lasting consequences of early life stress. 


2008    451<670 
Endocrine factors in stress and psychiatric disorders: focus on anxiety and salivary steroids. 
The endocrinology of exclusion: rejection elicits motivationally tuned changes in progesterone. 


2010     393<670    Free PMC Article   
The neuroendocrinology of primate maternal behavior. 


2011    385<670   
Epigenetic mechanisms in stress and adaptation. 


2011    384<670 
Ghrelin and food reward: the story of potential underlying substrates. 


2013    343<670 
Winning isn't everything: mood and testosterone regulate the cortisol response in competition. 


2013    315<670       
Smaller grey matter volumes in the anterior cingulate cortex and greater cerebellar volumes in patients with long-term remission of Cushing's disease. 
    Free Article   


2014    290<670   
Testosterone reactivity to facial display of emotions in men and women. 


2014    230<670   
The neuroendocrinology of social isolation.   


2015    211<670   
Increased testosterone levels and cortisol awakening responses in patients with borderline personality disorder: gender and trait aggressiveness ma...  


2016    206<670 
Thyroid hormone: Influences on mood and cognition in adults. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25896972        


2015    199<670 
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) and emotional processing  
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26122298  


2015    187<670   
Adult attachment style is associated with cerebral μ-opioid receptor availability in humans. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26046928       















Related References

Cushing's disease - Wikipedia 



Cortisol - Wikipedia 







Emotion: CotA
180108 - 1828





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