Glutamate Metabotropic Receptor


For information on the glutamate ionotropic receptor, please see: 
Glutamate Gate

Glutamate Receptor (Wiki) 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glutamate_receptor 

"
Glutamate receptors can be divided into two groups according to the mechanism by which their activation gives rise to a postsynaptic current.[8]

Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) form the ion channel pore that activates when glutamate binds to the receptor.

Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) indirectly activate ion-channels on the plasma membrane through a signaling cascade that involves G proteins. Ionotropic receptors tend to be quicker in relaying information but metabotropic are associated with a more prolonged stimulus." 

"Glutamate receptors are synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal cells. Glutamate is one of the 20 amino acids used to assemble proteins and as a result is abundant in many areas of the body, but it also functions as a neurotransmitter and is particularly abundant in the nervous system. Glutamate receptors are responsible for the glutamate-mediated post-synaptic excitation of neural cells, and are important for neural communication, memory formation, learning, and regulation."
 

Metabotropic glutamate receptor (Wiki) 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metabotropic_glutamate_receptor 
"The metabotropic glutamate receptors, or mGluRs, are a type of glutamate receptor which are active through an indirect metabotropic process. They are members of the group C family of G-protein-coupled receptors, or GPCRs.[2] Like all glutamate receptors, mGluRs bind with glutamate, an amino acid that functions as an excitatory neurotransmitter.

"
Eight different types of mGluRs, labeled mGluR1 to mGluR8 (GRM1 to GRM8), are divided into groups I, II, and III.[2][4][5][8] Receptor types are grouped based on receptor structure and physiological activity.[3] The mGluRs are further divided into subtypes, such as mGluR7a and mGluR7b.


The...Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor is Related to Bacterial... (PubMed) 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8338667?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_SingleItemSupl.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=1&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmed
 
Abstract only. 
    "
Receptors for the major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate include metabotropic (G protein-coupled) and ionotropic (glutamate-gated ion channel) types...the metabotropic receptor extracellular domain is similar to bacterial periplasmic amino acid binding proteins.




Tuning and playing a motor rhythm: how metabotropic glutamate receptors orchestrate generation of motor patterns in the mammalian central nervous system (Goog)
http://jp.physoc.org/content/572/2/323.full 

Full length HTML available online for free. 
    See:
Amphioxus Locomotion .      


1997   
335<518        Free Article 
Metabotropic glutamate receptors regulate N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated synaptic transmission in nucleus accumbens.
   
    Abstract: 
    "
We recorded intracellularly from core nucleus accumbens (NAcc) neurons in brain slices to study the regulation by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) of pharmacologically isolated N-methyl--aspartate-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (NMDA-EPSCs).  
    Monosynaptic NMDA-EPSCs, evoked by local stimulation, were isolated by superfusion of the non-NMDA and gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor antagonists, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; 10 microM) and bicuculline (15 microM), respectively."  
     "These findings suggest that NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission in NAcc is under dual inhibitory regulation by group 2 and 3 metabotropic receptor subtypes: -AP4-sensitive receptors located postsynaptically and those sensitive to trans-ACPD located presynaptically."  
    Free Article
http://jn.physiology.org/content/78/6/3028.long   
    "
In conclusion, the present study provides new evidence that NMDA receptor–mediated currents in NAcc neurons are under the control of different metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes located both pre- and postsynaptically (Fig. 10). As noted in the introduction, behavioral experiments have suggested that both mGluRs and NMDA receptors might be responsible for some aspects of opiate addiction. In addition, the NAcc is thought to play a major role in opiate-seeking behavior or the rewarding properties of opiates. To date, the cellular mechanisms responsible for these phenomena remain unknown. For these reasons, studies are under way to determine whether the interactions of mGluRs with glutamate release and NMDA receptor function might explain some aspects of morphine tolerance and dependence."  








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