Hormones in General

Cross reference:  Ligands      Evolution of Hormones     Receptor Evolution   
Parazoa Hormones   Coelenterata Hormones      Coelenterata Neuropeptides   
Hemichordate Hormones   Protochordate Hormones
    



Endocrinology - NCBI Bookshelf (Wiki) 
This is a full length textbook available online in easily accessible format for free.  It's a huge resource. 


The Endocrine System (Goog)
This is one of four complete textbooks put online by Colorado State University. 


Hormone (Wiki) 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormone 
"A hormone ... is a chemical released by a cell in one part of the body, that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism. ... It is essentially a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one cell to another. 

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All multicellular organisms produce hormones ... "

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Hormones in animals are often transported in the blood. Cells respond to a hormone when they express a specific receptor for that hormone. The hormone binds to the receptor protein, resulting in the activation of a signal transduction mechanism that ultimately leads to cell type-specific responses.

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Vertebrate hormones fall into three chemical classes:




Peptide hormone - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptide_hormone
    "
Peptide hormones and protein hormones are hormones whose molecules are peptides or proteins, respectively. The latter have longer amino acid chain lengths than the former. These hormones have an effect on the endocrine system of animals, including humans.[1] Most hormones can be classified as either amino acid–based hormones (amine, peptide, or protein) or steroid hormones. The former are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via second messengers; the latter, being lipid-soluble, move through the plasma membranes of target cells (both cytoplasmic and nuclear) to act within their nuclei."  


Glycoprotein - Wikipedia 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycoprotein   
    "
Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains. The carbohydrate is attached to the protein in a cotranslational or posttranslational modification. This process is known as glycosylation. Secreted extracellular proteins are often glycosylated."  

Hormones that are glycoproteins include:



Contents




Neurotrophin - Wikipedia 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurotrophin   
    "
Neurotrophins are a family of proteins that induce the survival,[1] development, and function[2] of neuronsThey belong to a class of growth factors, secreted proteins that are capable of signaling particular cells to survive, differentiate, or grow.[3] Growth factors such as neurotrophins that promote the survival of neurons are known as neurotrophic factors."  

Contents



2011    18<73   
Emergence and evolution of the glycoprotein hormone and neurotrophin gene families in vertebrates. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22085792   
    See:  Amphioxus Pituitary


2014    10<73 
Growth hormone  
   
Functional characterization of GH-like homolog in amphioxus reveals an ancient origin of GH/GH receptor system.   

     PubMed    Abstract: 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25333966 
    Endocrinology  Full-length reference: 
http://press.endocrine.org/doi/10.1210/en.2014-1377?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dpubmed&
     Wikipedia   Full-length reference:     
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growth_hormone  


2015    6<73 
Dehydroepiandrosterone: an ancestral ligand of neurotrophin receptors.   
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25330101   
    "
Based on our data, we hypothesize that early in evolution, DHEA may have acted as a nonspecific neurotrophic factor promoting neuronal survival. The interaction of DHEA with all types of neurotrophin receptors offers new insights into the largely unidentified mechanisms of its actions on multiple tissues and organs known to express neurotrophin receptors."  






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