Insulin-like Growth Factor

Cross references:    Amphioxus Insulin     

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Insulin-like growth factor - Wikipedia 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin-like_growth_factor   
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The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are proteins with high sequence similarity to insulin. IGFs are part of a complex system that cells use to communicate with their physiologic environment. 

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Insulin-like growth factor 1 - Wikipedia 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insulin-like_growth_factor_1 
    "Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.[1][2] IGF-1 has also been referred to as a "sulfation factor"[3] and its effects were termed "nonsuppressible insulin-like activity" (NSILA) in the 1970s.
    IGF-1 is a hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin. It plays an important role in childhood growth and continues to have anabolic effects in adults. A synthetic analog of IGF-1, mecasermin, is used for the treatment of growth failure.[4]
    IGF-1 consists of 70 amino acids in a single chain with three intramolecular disulfide bridges. IGF-1 has a molecular weight of 7,649 Dalton.[5]

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2013    13<72 
Structural and functional analysis of the amphioxus IGFBP gene uncovers ancient origin of IGF-independent functions. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23845322   
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In extracellular fluids, IGFs are bound and regulated by a family of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). Although all known IGFBPs are secreted proteins, some are also found in the nucleus and possess IGF-independent activities."  
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Amphioxus shares a common ancestor with the modern vertebrate lineage that dates back to more than 520 million years ago. The amphioxus IGFBP shares all major structural characteristics of vertebrate IGFBPs. Phylogenetic analyses place it in a basal position in the IGFBP lineage."  
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These results suggest that the nuclear localization and transcription activation activity of IGFBPs are ancient functions and the IGF-binding function may have been acquired by opportunistic gain-of-functional mutations later in evolution. "  
   
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