To return to the home page of the website of whatever page you're viewing, click on the logo at the top left corner. To reach the home page of one of the other websites, click on its link at the top of the home page. Internal links are in green. Historical Background & Free Book tells where I began. The Dictionary is what it's name implies. Another focus: O2P Refs in O2 SM & ASVD .
Many of the articles in this website are, admittedly, quite technical. If you just want to read about psychology in more or less plain English, check out: Online Self-Help , Online Psychology Compilations ,
Humans as Animals, Psychology Books .
Come back to: Early Behavior .
Cerebellar Neurotransmitters provides a very simplistic way of integrating the Cerebellum into the Locomotion Sequence .
Well, it's another 10th day.
Total of 0 non-empty cities .For prior summaries, please see: Google Analytics Log .
I've spent the past month studying HTML, so there's not much new here at the moment.
I had not expected that sponges would have so many possible hormones. Perhaps the question,
"How do Excitation and Inhibition interact to form Early Behavior ? " is an oversimplification.
Come back to:
Neuroactive substances specifically modulate rhythmic body contractions in the nerveless metazoon Tethya wilhelma (Demospongiae, Porifera)
Full length article available online for free:
See: Parazoa Hormones .
This is the first mention in my notes of an association between hormones and behavior suggestive of locomotion.
caffeine, glycine, serotonine, adrenaline, nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).
Both Central Pattern Generators and Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys contain references which indicate that glutamate and other excitatory amino acids play an important role in initiating locomotion.
Come back to: Central Pattern Generators . A quick glance showed more references to neurotransmitters than I remembered.
I just realized that my "Excitation Inhibition Excitation vs. Inhibition " division from yesterday is over simplified.
1. Inhibition of inhibition results in over-all excitation, but
2. excitation of excitation does not lead to over-all inhibition.
I'm puzzled by the lack of symmetry.
I've created two new webpages: Excitation and Inhibition . This should facilitate my examination of Excitation vs. Inhibition .
It's clear that the neuroendocrine system includes both excitatory and inhibitory elements. Perhaps the Autonomic Nervous System might provide a helpful perspective. The Excitation vs. Inhibition dichotomy seems to be paralleled by a Sympathetic Nervous System vs
Parasympathetic Nervous System dichotomy.
See: Sympathetic Nervous System and Parasympathetic Nervous System
I've done a pretty good job of reviewing the references in Excitation vs. Inhibition , but there is almost no consideration of the psychological, situational or metabolic causes of either excitation or inhibition .
Another change in direction. I'm going to look at Teleost Prey Catching as an evolutionary step beyond
Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys . See: Predatory Behavior .
I've replaced the VTh in Locomotion Sequence with Cbl . VTh is a motor structure whereas Cbl is sensory.
I've completed the first review of the references in Cerebellar Neurotransmitters . Both inhibitory (GABA) and excitatory (glutamate) neurons are present. However, they play different roles. The inhibitory, GABAergic, neurons stay within the cerebellum. They modulate the excitatory, glutamatergic, neurons which extend beyond the cerebellum and function as the over-all output. Therefore, looking at the larger picture, the cerebellum is excitatory rather than inhibitory. How do I integrate this into Locomotion Sequence ?
I've completed my first review of the references in Cerebellar Efferent Pathways . My initial impression is that the cerebellar output is more excitatory than inhibitory. If so, it opposes rather than facilitates Tonic Inhibition.
I've reviewed the first dozen references linked in: Cerebellum Tonic Inhibition . Much to my surprise, it looks as though the Cerebellum may play an active role in Tonic Inhibition .
So I took what was clearly a long shot.
Searching PubMed for "cerebellum tonic inhibition" revealed 170 references:
See: Cerebellum Tonic Inhibition .
I've reviewed the first dozen references linked in: Cerebellar Afferent Pathways . My first impression is that the Cerebellum receives inputs from many different sources.
I've reviewed the first dozen references linked in Cerebellar Efferent Pathways . They make it abundantly clear that any input to the Cerebellum from the Posterior Horn of the Spinal Cord may be forwarded to any of a large number of subcortical structures.
It seems clear that I need to look at the efferent Cerebellar pathways.
See: Posterior Horn of the Spinal Cord .
from : Dorsal Root Ganglion :
" Unlike the majority of neurons found in the central nervous system, an action potential in posterior root ganglion neuron may initiate in the distal process in the periphery, bypass the cell body, and continue to propagate along the proximal process until reaching the synaptic terminal in the posterior horn of spinal cord. "
So what is the next step after the Posterior Horn of the Spinal Cord ?
I seem to be back to: Locomotion Sequence . One of the important transitions is the inclusion of
Sensory Input . See: Pseudounipolar Neuron .
Come back to: 1987
Defense reaction elicited by injection of GABA antagonists and synthesis inhibitors into the posterior hypothalamus in rats.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3037412 in Fear .
See also: Behavioral Disinhibition .
I'm refocusing my attention on Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys .
Come back to: 1988 10<13
Synaptic organization of the striatum
"The major physiologic function of striatal efferent activity appears to be inhibition of tonically active GABAergic neurons in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata."
in Striatum .
For the moment, this is my central focus.
Up until now, my proposed Locomotion Sequence has been centered around the diagram in Basal Ganglia . I'm going to try a different approach focused on GABA , Glutamate , Medium Spiny Neurons the Ventral Tegmental Area and the Nucleus Accumbens Septi .
I've completed the second review of the references in Accumbens Input . Even a quick glance shows that there is still much to be done. However, I want to go back to Locomotion Sequence and
Locomotion Sequence .
I've completed the first review of the references in Accumbens Input . Of the 519 references located in the original search,
Searching PubMed for "Accumbens Input" identified 519 references:
I've chosen 71 for closer consideration. See: Accumbens Input .
My focus on Accumbens Input was motivated by the tacit assumption that the Nucleus Accumbens Septi receives only a few inputs. Now that it turns out that it receives many, I don't know where to go. Maybe I should take a look at:
Searching PubMed for "Accumbens Input" identified 518 references:
Come back to: Locomotion Sequence .
I need to map the connections which reduce the Tonic Inhibition imposed by the Nucleus Accumbens Septi .
GABA Testosterone didn't help much.
Searching PubMed for "gaba testosterone" discovered 304 references.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=gaba+testosterone" but came up with almost nothing.
Searching PubMed for "testosterone nucleus accumbens " revealed 63 references:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=testosterone+nucleus+accumbens " and found a few references on both testosterone and estrogen in the NAC. Reported "reward" but no mention of GABA or release of
Tonic Inhibition .
Perhaps it's time to revisit: Locomotion Sequence .
On 05-01-16 I wrote:
"It occurred to me that the Aggression promoted by Testosterone requires at least some
Behavioral Disinhibition of the Tonic Inhibition ascribed to GABA/Glycine Inhibition .
To look into this further, I've started a new page: GABA Testosterone ."
It's easy to get distracted. On 04-23-16, I wrote:
"I'm going to change direction for a while. This collection of interlocking web pages is motivated by my own psychological problems. Although I've really enjoyed studying our early ancestors, I seem to be a long way from relating what I've learned about them to my own psychological difficulties. So I'm going to spend some time looking at the issue from the other chronological end.
See: My Dysfunctional Family .
Since my own problems are centered around my dysfunctional mother, I'm going to start by looking for physiologic associations for what I perceive as her Personality Disorders ."
In the almost four months since then I've read a lot about our ancient ancestors. I've really enjoyed it, but none of it seems directly relevant to my mother's Sadism . So now I'm going to try to get back to
My Dysfunctional Family .
Come back to: Aggression .
For the first time I can remember, the average duration for a city has improved from one 10-day summary to the next:
On 07-30-16 Berkeley = 2 x 10:39.
Today Berkeley = 7 x 7:40 .
This is big news.
For prior Google Analytics, please see Google Analytics Log .
I've completed the first review of the references in Protochordate Hormones . Although there's a lot here that's interesting, most of it does not seem relevant to my mother's Sadism . So I'm going to go on to Amphioxus Hormones .
I've completed the first review of the references in Sea Urchin . They are heavily biased toward thyroid hormones. I don't know if this reflects an early evolution of thyroid hormones or just an early interest in them.
I've completed the first review of Acrasin . I didn't find anything that looked like a hormone, so I'm going to move on to: Parazoa , Porifera and Placozoa .
Come back to: Acrasin .
I'm still looking for the early precursors of hormones.
Prokaryote Colonies :
quorum sensing molecules
Gram-positive / small (antimicrobial) peptides
Gram-negative / homoserine lactones
Slime Molds :
cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP)
Although I never found a form of hormonal interaction at the Last Universal (Common) Ancestor (LUCA) level, there are many clear examples in Prokaryote Colonies
Gram positive / post-translationally modified peptides (or pheromones ) .
Gram negative / acyl homoserine lactone, AHL (autoinducers)
In overall structure the archaea are most similar to gram-positive bacteria, as most have a single plasma membrane and cell wall, and lack a periplasmic space."
Even a quick glance will show that Montmorillonite is not complete. However, I want to get back to "looking for some form of hormonal interaction at the Last Universal (Common) Ancestor (LUCA) level", so I'm going to change my focus to the Prokaryotes .
Although I was looking for some form of hormonal interaction at the Last Universal (Common) Ancestor (LUCA) level, I didn't find it. However, I did find some references which I feel go a long way toward describing an environmental niche which would have protected the newly evolving prebiotic chemistry from external disruption.
Although it's a bit of a stretch, I'm going to start my research on the "very early beginnings" by looking at the
Last Universal (Common) Ancestor . It will be interesting to see if we have identified anything like a hormone associated with any of them.
There's always more that could be done, but I think that
Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence does a pretty good job with BLA+HIP>NAC, so I'm going to go back to: My Dysfunctional Family .
I've just finished scanning through this Introduction starting with the earliest still-existing blog dated 4-2-10. There are many loose ends; questions which I've never answered.
I've decided to come back to the Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence, as first mentioned in the 03-04-16 blog entry.
It occurred to me that the Aggression promoted by Testosterone requires at least some
Behavioral Disinhibition of the Tonic Inhibition ascribed to GABA/Glycine Inhibition .
To look into this further, I've started a new page: GABA Testosterone .
Unlike the fatherless boys I considered in Boys without Fathers , my mother was more
Aggressive than Impulsive , so I'm going to try to apply what I learned about the endocrinology of the Aggression exhibited by fatherless boys to my mother's Sadism while ignoring the fatherless boys'
Up until now, the references I've found for My Dysfunctional Family have been almost entirely descriptive. They've described symptoms and life events without asking about the underlying physiology. In contrast, most of the references reported in Boys without Fathers are firmly rooted in physiology. Since the aggression discussed in Boys without Fathers seems similar to the aggression discussed in Sadism I'm going to assume that they have similar underlying physiologies and copy the references which seem relevant from
Boys without Fathers to Sadism .
I'm going to start out with Sadism , since it was this that did the most harm.
I'm going to change direction for a while. This collection of interlocking web pages is motivated by my own psychological problems. Although I've really enjoyed studying our early ancestors, I seem to be a long way from relating what I've learned about them to my own psychological difficulties. So I'm going to spend some time looking at the issue from the other chronological end.
See: My Dysfunctional Family .
Since my own problems are centered around my dysfunctional mother, I'm going to start by looking for physiologic associations for what I perceive as her Personality Disorders . Using links from:
Personality disorder (Wiki)
I've been looking at feeding and respiration as behaviors which preceded locomotion. My working hypothesis has been that they are evolutionarily older. But how are they related? The only behavior that the amphioxus exhibits that I'm sure of is when it swims to the surface to reproduce. (See: Amphioxus Behavior )
Otherwise neither feeding nor respiration elicit locomotion.
The location of the respiratory generator does not seem to be constant among different species.
Come back to: Lamprey Feeding & Respiration .
It turns out that my hypothesis is only partially correct. The amphioxus uses its "gills' for feeding, but not for respiration. The lamprey uses its gills for both.
I just realized that, for filter feeders such as the amphioxus, feeding and respiration take place simultaneously.
So I've started a new page: Amphioxus Feeding & Respiration .
I've completed an initial survey of the references in Lamprey Rhombencephalon . My most interesting impression is that hunger-feeding and possibly also respiration are below the reticular formation on the neuroaxis.
I've started a new page: Lamprey Rhombencephalon .
The Wikipedia article in Rhombencephalon did not mention the "posterior rhombencephalic reticular nucleus" which seems to be a major focus for some of the other references . However, there are many references in Reticulospinal Transmission which don't specify the name of the nucleus for the reticulospinal fibers and which, therefore, may be "posterior rhombencephalic".
Come back to:
posterior rhombencephalic reticular nucleus - PubMed
Come back to:
Brainstem command systems for locomotion in the lamprey: localization of descending pathways in the spinal cord. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3219560
Diencephalic projection to reticulospinal neurons involved in the initiation of locomotion in adult lampreys Lampetra fluviatilis.
in Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys seems to indicate that the Ventral Thalamus projects directly to the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region and/or the Rhombencephalon in the lamprey.
As far as I can tell, there's no direct path from the Ventral Pallidum to the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region .
The VP does provide input to some of the thalamic nuclei, such as the
ventral anterior nucleus, the
ventral lateral nucleus, and the
medial dorsal nucleus.
but these nuclei seem to project exclusively to the cortex rather than to the MLR.
It's beginning to look like the the only animal in which the Ventral Thalamus projects directly to the
Mesencephalic Locomotor Region is the lamprey. However, I need to come back and look at this more closely.
See: Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys , Lamprey Thalamus and Diencephaloreticular Transmission .
I'm particularly interested in the possibility of a direct path from the Ventral Pallidum to the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region .
I just realized that I need to add the Ventral Striatum to the Ventral Thalamus , Ventral Pallidum and
Subpallidal Area/Region as possible sources of input to the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region .
I've been adding images to Ventral Pallidum , and they really help my understanding.
I've spent the past 12 days, since 03-19-16, looking into the possibility that the Ventral Thalamus ,
the Ventral Pallidum and/or the Subpallidal Area/Region might provide direct input to the
Mesencephalic Locomotor Region . I will continue with this.
I'm currently reviewing and comparing Subpallidal Area/Region and Ventral Pallidum .
I just realized that I've been conflating Ventral Thalamus , Ventral Pallidum and Subpallidal Area/Region .
I used the "Find" command to search the 23 references in Subpallidal Area/Region for "mesen". I found 10 references to the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region
However, see: Lamprey Thalamus .
What are the similarities and differences between the Ventral Thalamus and the Subpallidal Area/Region ?
Some of the photocopies from 8-10 years ago seem to imply that there is a direct path from the Subpallidal Area/Region to the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region which bypasses the Thalamus . I need to look at this more closely. Perhaps the Thalamus is only important in the context of a Cerebral Cortex .
Although none of the references in Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence mentions the
Substantia Nigra pars Compacta (SNc), the following diagram from Nucleus Accumbens Septi (NAC) shows input to the NAC from the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA). At this point I don't see a clear difference between the SNc and the VTA. As far as I can tell, it's a single neuroanatomical structure with two names.
My attempt to integrate Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence with Locomotion Sequence Revision ran into an immediate problem. I used the diagram in Basal Ganglia as the framework for a very bare-bones guess about the sequence of events leading to locomotion. This diagram shows only two inputs to the Striatum, one from the Substantia Nigra pars Compacta and one from the Cerebral Cortex .
from: Basal Ganglia :
Connectivity diagram showing excitatory glutamatergic pathways as red, inhibitory GABAergic pathways as blue, and modulatory dopaminergic pathways as magenta. (Abbreviations: GPe: globus pallidus external; GPi: globus pallidus internal; STN: subthalamic nucleus; SNc: substantia nigra compacta; SNr: substantia nigra reticulata)
In contrast, none of the references in Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence mentions the Substantia Nigra pars Compacta . This, however, may be due to observer bias. I became very interested in the
Nucleus Accumbens Septi about 15 years ago, and my focus on "amygdala hippocampus convergence " reflects my ongoing interest.
It won't be easy, but I'm going to try to integrate Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence with
Locomotion Sequence Revision . Part of the problem is that the notation in the original Locomotion Sequence was never quite right. So, at the moment, I'm back to working on Locomotion Sequence .
It's been a couple of years since I've done much with Boys without Fathers . It's pretty much complete as it is. However, I only just recently discovered:
Daniel Patrick Moynihan
< https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Patrick_Moynihan >
The Negro Family: The Case For National Action"
I've copied the links into Family Structure and will begin to look through it when I have a chance.
I've put the references in Medium Spiny Neurons into a single, chronological, list. It was previously composed of two lists and a couple of fragments which were not chronologically integrated, and this made searching it difficult.
I think Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence will be my next focus.
Individual nucleus accumbens-projection neurons receive both basolateral amygdala and ventral subicular afferents in rats.
See: Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.
This supports my hypothesis that the accumbens facilitates behavior when the needs influencing the amygdala match the memories, provided by the hippocampus, of how similar needs were met.
I've attempted to resolve the two different pathways of locomotion sequence, but it's so complex I'm not sure I got it right. I'll have to come back to this.
Locomotion Sequence has two different pathways for locomotion sequence. One of them considers sensory input, and one does not. I need to resolve this.
Do both the GP and the NAC use GABA as an efferent neurotransmitter?
Apparently the answer is "yes".
Medial Globus Pallidus (internal globus pallidus)
"The medial globus pallidus (or internal, GPi) is one of the output nuclei of the basal ganglia (the other being the substantia nigra pars reticulata). The GABA-containing neurons send their axons to specific nuclei of the dorsal thalamus (VA and VL), to the centromedian complex and to the pedunculopontine complex.
Nucleus Accumbens Septi
"In culture, as in the intact nAcc, medium-spiny neurons account for over 95% of the cells and are GABAergic."
"GABA is one of the main neurotransmitters in the NAcc, and GABA receptors are also abundant.
My next step will be to try to forge some synthesis between Behavioral Disinhibition and
Locomotion Sequence .
At first I thought I would try for a synthesis between Motor Programs and Behavioral Disinhibition , but there was no mention of Behavioral Disinhibition in any of the Motor Programs references. What's more, the only mention of GABA was a very brief mention in the 5.1 Striatum and basal ganglia section of the "Procedural memory" reference.
In contrast, Behavioral Disinhibition mentions several behaviors which involve motor programs.
It looks like I've found the references for the "hippocampal-amygdala comparison" mentioned in the 02-24-16 blog, below.
See: Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence . So now what?
Perhaps I could try to forge some sort of synthesis between Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence ,
Motor Programs , Locomotion Sequence and Behavioral Disinhibition .
The EEA-GABA interaction hypothesis, below, doesn't require that either the excitatory or the inhibitory influences be specifically targeted at only a portion of the motor system. All that is required is that the hippocampal-amygdala combination increase the level of DA at the D2 receptors thus decreasing the
Tonic Inhibition and allowing behavior in accord with the hippocampal-amygdala comparison.
So I need to find the reference for the "hippocampal-amygdala comparison". If I remember correctly, it's filed in
Nucleus Accumbens Septi .
I'm going to try to update Locomotion Sequence to include the hypothesis, below, that "it's possible that the EEAs are either on or off at various strengths with all behavior being shaped by the inhibitory reward circuit". I expect that this will be difficult.
Perhaps I should take some time looking at Early Behavior .
What's the interaction between excitatory amino acids (EAAs) such as glutamate and inhibitory neurotransmitters such as GABA and glycine?
Important distinction: GABA is controlled, at least in part, by the reward circuit, including the NAC. It is much less clear what controls the EEAs.
So, what does control the EEAs? I suppose it's possible that the EEAs are either on or off at various strengths with all behavior being shaped by the inhibitory reward circuit, but so far I've seen no experimental evidence for this.
I've finished integrating Inhibition of Locomotion in Lampreys into Central Pattern Generators .
Come back to the question:
The references use phrases like 'phasic GABA" and "MLR activity". To what extent are these CPGs under a different name?
The references in Tonic Inhibition use phrases like 'phasic GABA" and "MLR activity". To what extent are these CPGs under a different name?
On 01-01-16 I asked the question:
" What is the interaction between the Globus Pallidus (GP) and the Nucleus Accumbens Septi (NAC)? ".
I may have stumbled on two partial answers in Tonic Inhibition :
I've finished integrating Tonic Inhibition into Central Pattern Generators . Next I'll work on
Inhibition of Locomotion in Lampreys .
I've completed a third review of the 82 references in Central Pattern Generators (CPGs). Strictly from memory, the neurotransmitters in descending order of importance are: glutamate, glycine, substance P, dopamine, 5-HT, and finally GABA. However, this apparent order of importance may be biased toward excitatory transmitters by it's focus on CPGs. Perhaps the next step should be to integrate the GABA pages with the CPG page.
I've finished integrating Lamprey GABA into Central Pattern Generators . Now I'm going to start integrating
Tonic Inhibition .
There are currently 82 references in Central Pattern Generators . Many of them are just bare-bone links without even an Abstract. I'm now going to go back and give the more interesting of them not only an Abstract but also links to Similar articles. Instead of working in chronological order as I usually do, I'll be working up from the bottom of the list; in reverse chronological order.
Eventually I'm going to try to integrate what I've learned about Central Pattern Generators into
Locomotion Sequence .
Combining the two searches was more difficult than I expected, but I think I've finally gotten it right. However, there's still a lot more to do.
I've completed the second review of Central Pattern Generators with special emphasis on the subset of 349 references listing Grillner as an author. There's a lot here, so I'm going to have to go back through it again.
I've completed the first review of the 667 references in Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) and the additional 349 references I found when searching PubMed for "Grillner S". Although my original focus was CPGs, I had a hard time ignoring references on different topics which I found interesting. So both searches include references on topics other than CPGs. I guess my next step is to go back over Central Pattern Generators and find new places to file the references that are not directly relevant to CPGs.
Although Central Pattern Generators mentions many neurotransmitters, it seems especially focused on excitatory amino acids such as glutamate. In contrast, it doesn't say much about GABA.
So perhaps it's time to take another look at
GABA , Medium Spiny Neurons , Lamprey GABA , GABA/Glycine Inhibition ,
Tonic Inhibition , Behavioral Disinhibition , Inhibition of Locomotion in Lampreys
Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys .
My central focus continues to be: Locomotion Sequence
Experimental data concerning this topic is spread out through numerous pages:
Spinal Locomotor Generator Central Pattern Generators Lamprey Locomotion
Activity of Reticulospinal Neurons During Locomotion
Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys Inhibition of Locomotion in Lampreys
Salamander Locomotion Reticulospinal Transmission
Diencephaloreticular Transmission Thalamic Neurotransmitters
Dorsal Root Ganglion Sensory System Sensory Input Spinal Cord ,
GABA , Medium Spiny Neurons , Lamprey GABA , GABA/Glycine Inhibition ,
Tonic Inhibition , Behavioral Disinhibition Ventral Thalamus
I clearly need to do some consolidation.
I've finished reviewing: Pallidothalamic tracts , Ansa Lenticularis ,
Thalamic Fasciculus (H1), Lenticular Fasciculus (H2) , Subthalamus and
Medium Spiny Neurons .
Eventually I've got to figure out how these fit into Locomotion Sequence .
I've just added the Ventral Thalamus to Locomotion Sequence . It may not be exactly right, but I think it's a step in the right direction. However, I notice that "SI >+ VTh >+ RAS >+ ..." is a series of three excitatory synapses. Without some form of restraint, this would result in exponentially increasing excitation and destruction of the down-stream neurons. So maybe it's time to take another look at
GABA , Medium Spiny Neurons , Lamprey GABA , GABA/Glycine Inhibition ,
Tonic Inhibition , Behavioral Disinhibition , Inhibition of Locomotion in Lampreys .
911, and I didn't even see it coming. I'd go to a memorial event, if I knew of one close by, but I don't. I did a web search. Lots of other stuff, but almost no mention of the World Trade Center.
I reviewed all 234 references in Thalamus Motor Relay and read the full Abstracts of all the references that seemed like they might discuss a direct pathway from the thalamus to lower motor centers. None did. All the pathways from the thalamus to the motor centers that they discussed passed through the cortex. Didn't the thalamus of precortical animals such as the lamprey and the salamander have a pathway to the lower motor centers? I'm sure they must have.
I need to take another look at: Lamprey Locomotion
There seems to be very little acknowledgement of the importance of GABAergic disinhibition to behavior. Searching Motor Programs for "gaba" found only one occurance in the entire page. On the other hand, the references in Behavioral Disinhibition give very little attention to just what behavior is being disinhibited.
What allows some behaviors and not others to be disinhibited? The reward circuitry, including the
Nucleus Accumbens Septi may disinhibit non-emergency behavior, but what disinhibits emergency behavior?
This sounds like the questions surrounding Fast vs. Slow Twitch Muscles .
I had hoped that I would be able to identify specific neurotransmitters for the tracts reported by Herrick in
Brain of the Tiger Salamander , but that's proving to be more difficult than I anticipated. In particular, I'm having trouble reconciling Tract Neurotransmitters with Salamander Neurotransmitters . There's very little overlap between the two.
An additional problem is that I find myself torn between two goals:
Goal #1: Make this website as comprehensive as possible.
Goal #2: Study the physiology of human behavior.
I'm going to drop Goal #1 and start concentrating on Goal #2.
Come back to: Lateral Forebrain Bundle .
This is a big day for me. BHL ran a really nice review of my Brain of the Tiger Salamander website. You can read it at: BHL and Our Users .
I've begun a major new effort. I realized that my Subcortical Brain site was attempting to serve two different purposes:
1) supplement Herrick's presentation of salamander neuroanatomy with information which may be relevant to salamanders' neurotransmitters and hormones; and
2) provide a model of subcortical function which will hopefully shed light on human behavior.
Although these these two goals are not mutually contradictory, they are different, and dealing with both of them on the same website was awkward. So I've split the site into two.
Goal #1, "supplement(ing) Herrick's presentation of salamander neuroanatomy with information which may be relevant to salamanders' neurotransmitters and hormones" has been moved to a new site, Herrick Update .
Goal #2, providing "a model of subcortical function which will hopefully shed light on human behavior" will remain in Subcortical Brain . I'm going to start with the Lamprey Nervous System .
I've now completed the first draft of an online version of C. Judson Herrick's
Brain of the Tiger Salamander
I've resurrected an earlier website, Subcortical Brain , and given it a new focus. I'll be working on it at the same time that I'm continuing to work on the other two websites and the earlier project, below.
I want to go back and work on an earlier project. As the culmination of a 30 year effort, in 2003 I published a paper:
Plasma Oxygen Permeability May be a Factor in Atherosclerosis
I want to do a repeat study, but I can't do it alone. Dr. Heppner, with whom I did the first study, is now completely tied up with his practice and is unable to help me a second time. So I must find someone else. For the next little while, I'm going to be working on that.
I've completed the first version of the rewrite of Boys without Fathers centered on serotonin rather than testosterone. It needs more work, of course, but this is, nonetheless, a milestone.
Since most of the research into the endocrinology of male socialization has centered on testosterone and aggression, that was my initial focus. However, the boys who cause problems in the classroom seem more impulsive than violent, so I've rewritten the paper with a stronger focus on serotonin.
My BA was in math, and the kind of math I liked best was deductive construction of complex intellectual results from a minimal number of simple axioms. I turned to the amphioxus as a source of axioms for building an understanding of human psychology because I expected that it would provide me with a minimal number of simple biological facts that I could stitch together to provide a physiological explanation for human psychology.
The amphioxus defeated me. It has turned out to be far more complex than I could ever have imagined. So, I've started a new webpage, Boys without Fathers , and I'll be spending most of my time on that effort for the next several months.
I'm going to change my focus. When viewed at the receptor level, the amphioxus and its descendants are overwhelmingly complex. So I'm going to step back and look at them at the organism level.
For the moment, Goals #1 and #2, below, appear to be out of reach. So, for the next little while, I'm going to concentrate on the easier task of providing an endocrine explanation for why boys who grow up without a father have so much difficulty adjusting to society. I'll come back to the larger task once this is done.
Goal #1: My main goal, of course, is to provide a physiological basis of human behavior.
Goal #2: Human physiology is bewilderingly complex, and I was assuming that the amphioxus was a simple little creature that I could use as a starting point for unraveling human complexity. However, the amphioxus has turned out to be far more complex than I anticipated. So, in order to understand the physiological basis of human behavior, I must first understand the physiological basis of amphioxus behavior, and that has proved challenging.
Amphioxus Nervous System now gives an overview of the amphioxus nervous system. I had originally intended to go from the general discussion to a more detailed consideration of particular parts of the nervous system. I've changed my mind.
I really think that, as important to human behavior and psychology as the nervous system might be, the endocrine system is even more important. So I'm going to switch my focus from the amphioxus nervous system to the amphioxus endocrine system. I still have many references on the amphioxus nervous system that I haven't yet summarized, but I want to spend some more time on the endocrine system first.
I try to check the inbox every day. Comments and questions would be most welcome.
CotA - Introduction - Version 5735
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