Introduction - Version 5791

     To return to the home page of the website of whatever page you're viewing, click on the logo at the top left corner.   To reach the home page of one of the other websites, click on its link at the top of the home page.  Internal links are in green.  Historical Background & Free Book   tells where I began.  The  Dictionary is what it's name implies.           Another focus:  O2P Refs   in  O2 SM & ASVD .    
    Many of the articles in this website are, admittedly, quite technical.  If you just want to read about psychology in more or less plain English, check out:   Online Self-HelpOnline Psychology Compilations ,
  Humans as Animals,   Psychology Books .   


4-29-17   

    Globus pallidus (GP)    from:    Locomotion Sequence  .     
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globus_pallidus      
    Important
"When it comes to regulation of movement, the globus pallidus has a primarily inhibitory action that balances the excitatory action of the cerebellum."     



4-28-17 

I'm changing my notation.  Up until now,   
    "
SNc >+ Str/NAC (DA-D1R)" 
meant that SNc used the neurotransmitter DA to communicate with the D1R receptor in the Str/NAC.  I'm going to change that notation to
    "SNc(DA)>+Str/NAC(D1R)" with the same meaning but less ambiguity. 
See:   Locomotion Sequence 


4-27-17 

    Come back to:  2005    236<1217 
Different pontine projections to the two sides of the cerebellum. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16111556  
    in  Cerebellar Afferent Pathways   . 


4-21-17
 

It took eleven days, but I've finally fixed the URLs for most of the references in  Online Self-Help and 
Online Psychology Compilations   

Next, as per 10-24-16, I'm going to try to integrate Cerebellar Neurotransmitters  into  Locomotion Sequence   


04-20-17 

    Well, it's another 10th day.   
    Total of 1 non-empty cities .   
BTS:  7 specified cities - 1 non-empty cities   
    Gilbert:  1 x 8:35 
Everything else was zero.  
   
For prior summaries, please see:   Google Analytics Log


04-14-17 

The time and energy I'm having to spend trying to fix the links in Online Self-Help  and 
Online Psychology Compilations
  demonstrates a vulnerability of the internet.  The information provided by the internet remains available only for as long as the provider of the information continues to function.  If the functionality of the information provider becomes disrupted, the information becomes unavailable.

   
04-12-17 

The original motivation for these web pages was my interest in psychology.  So imagine my surprise and disappointment when I discovered that the links in both  Online Self-Help  and 
Online Psychology Compilations
  no longer worked.  After several days of frantic struggle I finally found a way to fix them, and I'm doing that now.  Since there are quite a few of them, it's going to take several more days.
     

04-10-17   

    Well, it's another 10th day.  Total of 3 non-empty cities . 
   
For prior summaries, please see:   Google Analytics Log
   
I'm currently studying HTML and Linux, so there's not much new here at the moment. 


03-24-17 

Cerebellar Neurotransmitters  provides  a very simplistic way of integrating the Cerebellum  into the Locomotion Sequence  .  


02-04-17 

I had not expected that sponges would have so many possible hormones.  Perhaps the question,
 "How do Excitation  and   Inhibition  interact to form   Early Behavior ? "   is an oversimplification. 



01-21-17 

Both   Central Pattern Generators  and  Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys   contain references which indicate that glutamate and other excitatory amino acids play an important role in initiating locomotion.     


01-15-17 

Come back to:  Central Pattern Generators .   A quick glance showed more references to neurotransmitters than I remembered. 


01-10-17 

I just realized that my "Excitation    Inhibition   Excitation vs. Inhibition "  division from yesterday is over simplified. 

    1.  Inhibition of inhibition results in over-all excitation, but
    2.  excitation of excitation does not lead to over-all inhibition.   

I'm puzzled by the lack of symmetry. 


 
01-09-17 

I've created two new webpages:   Excitation  and  Inhibition .   This should facilitate my examination of  Excitation vs. Inhibition  .  


01-08-17 

It's clear that the neuroendocrine system includes both excitatory and inhibitory elements.  Perhaps the  Autonomic Nervous System might provide a helpful perspective.   The  Excitation vs. Inhibition  dichotomy seems to be paralleled by a   Sympathetic Nervous System  vs 
Parasympathetic Nervous System  dichotomy.  
  
  See: 
Sympathetic Nervous System  and   Parasympathetic Nervous System
 

12-29-15 

I've done a pretty good job of reviewing the references in  Excitation vs. Inhibition   , but there is almost no consideration of the psychological, situational or metabolic causes of either excitation or inhibition . 

 

11-11-16 

    I've replaced the VTh in  Locomotion Sequence with Cbl .  VTh is a motor structure whereas Cbl is sensory.    


10-24-16 

I've completed the first review of the references in  Cerebellar Neurotransmitters  .   Both inhibitory (GABA) and excitatory (glutamate) neurons are present.  However, they play different roles.  The inhibitory, GABAergic, neurons stay within the cerebellum.  They modulate the excitatory, glutamatergic, neurons which extend beyond the cerebellum and function as the over-all output.  Therefore, looking at the larger picture, the cerebellum is excitatory rather than inhibitory.  How do I integrate this into  Locomotion Sequence   ?    


10-14-16   
I've completed my first review of the references in  Cerebellar Efferent Pathways  .   My initial impression is that the cerebellar output is more excitatory than inhibitory.  If so, it opposes rather than facilitates  Tonic Inhibition.


10-01-16   

    I've reviewed the first dozen references linked in:  Cerebellum Tonic Inhibition   .  Much to my surprise, it looks as though the  Cerebellum  may play an active role in  Tonic Inhibition  .   


09-27-16   

So I took what was clearly a long shot.   

    Searching PubMed for "cerebellum tonic inhibition" revealed 170 references:   
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=cerebellum+tonic+inhibition  

See:   Cerebellum Tonic Inhibition   . 


09-24-16   

    I've reviewed the first dozen references linked in:   Cerebellar Afferent Pathways  .   My first impression is that the   Cerebellum  receives inputs from many different sources.  


09-23-16   

    I've reviewed the first dozen references linked in  Cerebellar Efferent Pathways  .  They make it abundantly clear that any input to the Cerebellum  from the   Posterior Horn of the Spinal Cord  may be forwarded to any of a large number of subcortical structures.   

 
09-17-16 

It seems clear that I need to look at the efferent  Cerebellar  pathways.   
    See:   Posterior Horn of the Spinal Cord


09-15-16  

    fromDorsal Root Ganglion :            
    " Unlike the majority of neurons found in the central nervous system, an action potential in posterior root ganglion neuron may initiate in the distal process in the periphery, bypass the cell body, and continue to propagate along the proximal process until reaching the synaptic terminal in the posterior horn of spinal cord.  "  
    My comment
So what is the next step after the Posterior Horn of the Spinal Cord


09-14-16 

I seem to be back to:    Locomotion Sequence    .   One of the important transitions is the inclusion of 
Sensory Input .  See:   Pseudounipolar Neuron .    


09-12-16 

    Come back to:   1987    
Defense reaction elicited by injection of GABA antagonists and synthesis inhibitors into the posterior hypothalamus in rats.   
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3037412  in   Fear
    See also:   Behavioral Disinhibition  . 


09-10-16 
  
    I'm refocusing my attention on  Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys


09-09-16 

Come back to:  1988 10<13
    Synaptic organization of the striatum   
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3069970     
    "The major physiologic function of striatal efferent activity appears to be inhibition of tonically active GABAergic neurons in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata."       
in  Striatum   .  
    My comment
For the moment, this is my central focus. 


09-06-16 

Up until now, my proposed  Locomotion Sequence   has been centered around the diagram in  Basal Ganglia  .  I'm going to try a different approach focused on GABA  ,  GlutamateMedium Spiny Neurons  the Ventral Tegmental Area  and the   Nucleus Accumbens Septi  . 


09-04-16   

I've completed the second review of the references in  Accumbens Input .  Even a quick glance shows that there is still much to be done.  However, I want to go back to   Locomotion Sequence
   .     


08-26-16   

I've completed the first review of the references in  Accumbens Input  .    Of the 519 references located in the original search, 

    Searching PubMed for "Accumbens Input" identified 519 references:   
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=accumbens+input   

 I've chosen 71 for closer consideration.  See: Accumbens Input  .     


08-20-16 

My focus on   Accumbens Input  was motivated by the tacit assumption that the   Nucleus Accumbens Septi   receives only a few inputs.  Now that it turns out that it receives many, I don't know where to go.    Maybe I should take a look at: 
   
    Searching PubMed for "Accumbens Input" identified 518 references:   
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=accumbens+input  


08-15-16 

Come back to: 
Locomotion Sequence  .    
I need to map the connections which reduce the  Tonic Inhibition   imposed by the  Nucleus Accumbens Septi
 

08-12-16   

GABA Testosterone  didn't help much. 
Searching PubMed for "gaba testosterone"  discovered 304 references.     
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=gaba+testosterone" but  came up with almost nothing.  

Searching PubMed for "testosterone nucleus accumbens " revealed 63 references: 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=testosterone+nucleus+accumbens  " and found a few references on both testosterone and estrogen in the NAC.  Reported "reward" but no mention of GABA or release of 
Tonic Inhibition .      

Perhaps it's time to revisit:
Locomotion Sequence   .   


08-11-16   

    On 05-01-16  I wrote: 

     "It occurred to me that the  Aggression  promoted by   Testosterone  requires at least some
Behavioral Disinhibition  of the Tonic Inhibition  ascribed to GABA/Glycine Inhibition .   

    To look into this further, I've started a new page: GABA Testosterone  ."        

It's easy to get distracted.  On 04-23-16, I wrote:   

    "I'm going to change direction for a while.  This collection of interlocking web pages is motivated by my own psychological problems.  Although I've really enjoyed studying our early ancestors, I seem to be a long way from relating what I've learned about them to my own psychological difficulties.  So I'm going to spend some time looking at the issue from the other chronological end. 
    See:  My Dysfunctional Family .   

    Since my own problems are centered around my dysfunctional mother, I'm going to start by looking for physiologic associations for what I perceive as her  Personality Disorders   ."   

    In the almost four months since then I've read a lot about our ancient ancestors.  I've really enjoyed it, but none of it seems directly relevant to my mother's  Sadism .  So now I'm going to try to get back to
My Dysfunctional Family  .  

    Come back to:  Aggression
 

08-10-16 

 For the first time I can remember, the average duration for a city has improved from one 10-day summary to the next: 

    On 07-30-16  Berkeley = 2 x 10:39. 
    Today Berkeley =  7 x 7:40 .

This is big news.   
     For prior Google Analytics, please see  Google Analytics Log  .       


08-09-16   

I've completed the first review of the references in  Protochordate Hormones   .   Although there's a lot here that's interesting, most of it does not seem relevant to my mother's  Sadism .    So I'm going to go on to 
Amphioxus Hormones


08-04-16   

I've completed the first review of the references in  Sea Urchin  .  They are heavily biased toward thyroid hormones.  I don't know if this reflects an early evolution of thyroid hormones or just an early interest in them.     


07-24-16 

I've completed the first review of  Acrasin .   I didn't find anything that looked like a hormone, so I'm going to move on to:  Parazoa  , Porifera  and   Placozoa  . 


07-23-16 

Come back to:  Acrasin  . 

I'm still looking for the early precursors of hormones. 

  Prokaryote Colonies   : 
    quorum sensing molecules     
        Gram-positive / small (antimicrobial) peptides   
        Gram-negative / homoserine lactones 

  Slime Molds
    acrasins       
        cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate   (cAMP)   


07-12-16   

Although I never found a form of hormonal interaction at the  Last Universal (Common) Ancestor  (LUCA) level, there are many clear examples in  Prokaryote Colonies  
    Gram positive / post-translationally modified peptides  (or pheromones ) . 
    Gram negative / acyl homoserine lactone, AHL (autoinducers) 

In overall structure the archaea are most similar to gram-positive bacteria, as most have a single plasma membrane and cell wall, and lack a periplasmic space." 


07-03-16 

Even a quick glance will show that  Montmorillonite  is not complete.  However, I want to get back to "looking for some form of hormonal interaction at the  Last Universal (Common) Ancestor  (LUCA) level", so I'm going to change my focus to the Prokaryotes .  


06-27-16 

Although I was looking for some form of hormonal interaction at the  Last Universal (Common) Ancestor  (LUCA) level, I didn't find it.  However, I did find some references which I feel go a long way toward describing an environmental niche which would have protected the newly evolving prebiotic chemistry from external disruption.      
    See:   Montmorillonite


06-21-16 

Although it's a bit of a stretch, I'm going to start my research on the "very early beginnings" by looking at the  
Last Universal (Common) Ancestor   .   It will be interesting to see if we have identified anything like a hormone associated with any of them. 


05-16-16 

There's always more that could be done, but I think that  
Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence   does a pretty good job with BLA+HIP>NAC, so I'm going to go back to:     My Dysfunctional Family  .   


05-11-16   

I've just finished scanning through this Introduction starting with the earliest still-existing blog dated 4-2-10.  There are many loose ends; questions which I've never answered. 

I've decided to come back to the Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence, as first mentioned in the 03-04-16 blog entry.  


05-01-16 

It occurred to me that the  Aggression  promoted by   Testosterone  requires at least some
Behavioral Disinhibition  of the Tonic Inhibition  ascribed to GABA/Glycine Inhibition .   

    To look into this further, I've started a new page: GABA Testosterone  .        


04-28-16                  

Unlike the fatherless boys I considered in   Boys without Fathers  ,  my mother was more
Aggressive  than Impulsive  , so I'm going to try to apply what I learned about the endocrinology of the Aggression  exhibited by fatherless boys to my mother's Sadism  while ignoring the fatherless boys' 
Impulsivity .   

    Up until now, the references I've found for  My Dysfunctional Family  have been almost entirely descriptive.  They've described symptoms and life events without asking about the underlying physiology.  In contrast, most of the references reported in Boys without Fathers  are firmly rooted in physiology.  Since the aggression discussed in   Boys without Fathers  seems similar to the aggression discussed in Sadism  I'm going to assume that they have similar underlying physiologies and copy the references which seem relevant from
Boys without Fathers to Sadism .    


04-24-16 

I'm going to start out with   Sadism , since it was this that did the most harm. 


04-23-16 

I'm going to change direction for a while.  This collection of interlocking web pages is motivated by my own psychological problems.  Although I've really enjoyed studying our early ancestors, I seem to be a long way from relating what I've learned about them to my own psychological difficulties.  So I'm going to spend some time looking at the issue from the other chronological end. 
    See:  My Dysfunctional Family .   

Since my own problems are centered around my dysfunctional mother, I'm going to start by looking for physiologic associations for what I perceive as her  Personality Disorders   .  Using links from: 
    Personality disorder (Wiki)   
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personality_disorder#Cluster_B_.28dramatic.2C_emotional_or_erratic_disorders.29  

these are:   

    Sadistic    
    Dependent  
    Narcissistic         


04-22-16 

I've been looking at feeding and respiration as behaviors which preceded locomotion.  My working hypothesis has been that they are evolutionarily older.  But how are they related?  The only behavior that the amphioxus exhibits that I'm sure of is when it swims to the surface to reproduce.  (See: Amphioxus Behavior )
Otherwise neither feeding nor respiration elicit locomotion. 


04-20-16 

The location of the respiratory generator does not seem to be constant among different species. 
Come back to:  Lamprey Feeding & Respiration  . 


04-18-16 

It turns out that my hypothesis is only partially correct.  The amphioxus uses its "gills' for feeding, but not for respiration.  The lamprey uses its gills for both.   


04-17-16 

I just realized that, for filter feeders such as the amphioxus, feeding and respiration take place simultaneously.   
So I've started a new page:  Amphioxus Feeding & Respiration  


04-16-16 

I've completed an initial survey of the references in   Lamprey Rhombencephalon  .   My most interesting impression is that hunger-feeding and possibly also respiration are below the reticular formation on the neuroaxis. 


04-12-16 

I've started a new page:  Lamprey Rhombencephalon  . 

    My comment
The Wikipedia article in  Rhombencephalon  did not mention the "posterior rhombencephalic reticular nucleus" which seems to be a major focus for some of the other references .   However, there are many references in Reticulospinal Transmission  which don't specify the name of the nucleus for the reticulospinal fibers and which, therefore, may be "posterior rhombencephalic".   

    Come back to:

posterior rhombencephalic reticular nucleus - PubMed 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=posterior+rhombencephalic+reticular+nucleus  
    40 references 


04-09-16 

Come back to: 

Rhombencephalon     

1988  
Brainstem command systems for locomotion in the lamprey: localization of descending pathways in the spinal cord.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3219560  

    and 

1997
Diencephalic projection to reticulospinal neurons involved in the initiation of locomotion in adult lampreys Lampetra fluviatilis.  
     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9421142  
in  Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys  seems to indicate that the  Ventral Thalamus  projects directly to the  Mesencephalic Locomotor Region  and/or the  Rhombencephalon   in the lamprey. 

 
04-08-16 

As far as I can tell, there's no direct path from the  Ventral Pallidum  to the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region  . 
The VP does provide input to some of the thalamic nuclei, such as the  
    ventral anterior nucleus, the  
    ventral lateral nucleus, and the  
    medial dorsal nucleus.  
but these nuclei seem to project exclusively to the cortex rather than to the MLR. 

It's beginning to look like the the only animal in which the  Ventral Thalamus  projects directly to the
Mesencephalic Locomotor Region is the lamprey.   However, I need to come back and look at this more closely. 
    See:  Initiation of Locomotion in LampreysLamprey Thalamus   and  Diencephaloreticular Transmission  .


04-07-16 

I'm particularly interested in the possibility of a direct path from the  Ventral Pallidum  to the   Mesencephalic Locomotor Region  .    

I just realized that I need to add the  Ventral Striatum  to the Ventral Thalamus  ,  Ventral Pallidum  and 
Subpallidal Area/Region   as possible sources of input to the  Mesencephalic Locomotor Region  .   


04-05-16   
 
I've been adding images to   Ventral Pallidum ,  and they really help my understanding.    


04-01-16 

I've spent the past 12 days, since 03-19-16, looking into the possibility that the Ventral Thalamus  ,
the  Ventral Pallidum  and/or  the  Subpallidal Area/Region  might provide direct input to the
Mesencephalic Locomotor Region  .   I will continue with this.    


03-28-16 

I'm currently reviewing and comparing   Subpallidal Area/Region  and  Ventral Pallidum  . 


03-26-16 

I just realized that I've been conflating  Ventral Thalamus  ,  Ventral Pallidum  and  Subpallidal Area/Region   . 


03-25-16 

I used the "Find" command to search the 23 references in  Subpallidal Area/Region   for "mesen".  I found 10 references to the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region   


03-24-16 

However, see:   Lamprey Thalamus  .  

What are the similarities and differences between the   Ventral Thalamus  and the  Subpallidal Area/Region  ?   


03-23-16 

Some of the photocopies from 8-10 years ago seem to imply that there is a direct path from the  Subpallidal Area/Region  to the  Mesencephalic Locomotor Region  which bypasses the Thalamus .   I need to look at this more closely.  Perhaps the Thalamus  is only important in the context of a  Cerebral Cortex  .       


03-19-16 

Although none of the references in   Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence   mentions the 
Substantia Nigra pars Compacta (SNc), the following diagram from Nucleus Accumbens Septi (NAC) shows input to the NAC from the Ventral Tegmental Area  (VTA).  At this point I don't see a clear difference between the SNc and the VTA.  As far as I can tell, it's a single neuroanatomical structure with two names.    

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is CN-4-4-277_F1.jpg


03-18-16   

My attempt to integrate  Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence  with  Locomotion Sequence Revision ran into an immediate problem.  I used the diagram in Basal Ganglia as the framework for a very bare-bones guess about the sequence of events leading to locomotion.  This diagram shows only two inputs to the Striatum, one from the  Substantia Nigra pars Compacta  and one from the  Cerebral Cortex .


from: Basal Ganglia :

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Basal-ganglia-classic.png

Connectivity diagram showing excitatory glutamatergic pathways as red, inhibitory GABAergic pathways as blue, and modulatory dopaminergic pathways as magenta. (Abbreviations: GPe: globus pallidus external; GPi: globus pallidus internal; STN: subthalamic nucleus; SNc: substantia nigra compacta; SNr: substantia nigra reticulata) 

In contrast,  none of the references in   Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence   mentions the  Substantia Nigra pars Compacta  .  This, however, may be due to observer bias.  I became very interested in the
Nucleus Accumbens Septi  about 15 years ago, and my focus on "amygdala hippocampus convergence " reflects my ongoing interest.        


03-15-16 

It won't be easy, but I'm going to try to integrate    Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence  with
 Locomotion Sequence Revision  .  Part of the problem is that the notation in the original   Locomotion Sequence  was never quite right.  So, at the moment, I'm back to working on    Locomotion Sequence    .       


03-14-16 

It's been a couple of years since I've done much with   Boys without Fathers  .   It's pretty much complete as it is.  However, I only just recently discovered:   
    Daniel Patrick Moynihan
    < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Patrick_Moynihan  >
and his 
    The Negro Family: The Case For National Action"
    <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Negro_Family:_The_Case_For_National_Action> . 

I've copied the links into Family Structure and will begin to look through it when I have a chance. 
 

03-13-16 

I've put the references in   Medium Spiny Neurons  into a single, chronological, list.  It was previously composed of two lists and a couple of fragments which were not chronologically integrated, and this made searching it difficult.  

I think   Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence  will be my next focus.    


03-11-16 
 
2003    50<77
Individual nucleus accumbens-projection neurons receive both basolateral amygdala and ventral subicular afferents in rats.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12763065 
See:  Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.   
    My comment:   
    This supports my hypothesis that the accumbens facilitates behavior when the needs influencing the amygdala match the memories, provided by the hippocampus, of how similar needs were met.     


03-10-16  

I've attempted to resolve the two different pathways of locomotion sequence, but it's so complex I'm not sure I got it right.  I'll have to come back to this. 
     

03-09-16 

Locomotion Sequence  has two different pathways for locomotion sequence.  One of them considers sensory input, and one does not.  I need to resolve this. 
   

03-08-16
    Do both the GP and the NAC use GABA as an efferent neurotransmitter?   
Apparently the answer is "yes". 

     Medial Globus Pallidus    (internal globus pallidus)     
    "The medial globus pallidus (or internal, GPi) is one of the output nuclei of the basal ganglia (the other being the substantia nigra pars reticulata). The GABA-containing neurons send their axons to specific nuclei of the dorsal thalamus (VA and VL), to the centromedian complex and to the pedunculopontine complex.[1][2]
   
     Nucleus Accumbens Septi    
    "In culture, as in the intact nAcc, medium-spiny neurons account for over 95% of the cells and are GABAergic."     
    "GABA is one of the main neurotransmitters in the NAcc, and GABA receptors are also abundant.[19][21] 


03-06-16 

My next step will be to try to forge some synthesis between   Behavioral Disinhibition  and  
Locomotion Sequence    .  


03-05-16   

At first I thought I would try for a synthesis between Motor Programs  and   Behavioral Disinhibition , but there was no mention of   Behavioral Disinhibition   in any of the Motor Programs  references.  What's more, the only mention of GABA was a very brief mention in the   5.1 Striatum and basal ganglia    section of the  "Procedural memory" reference.  

In contrast,  Behavioral Disinhibition mentions several behaviors which involve motor programs.  

   
03-04-16 

It looks like I've found the references for the "hippocampal-amygdala comparison" mentioned in the 02-24-16 blog, below. 
    See:    Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence   .   So now what? 

Perhaps I could try to forge some sort of synthesis between   Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence
Motor Programs ,
Locomotion Sequence   and  Behavioral Disinhibition  .     


02-24-16 

The EEA-GABA interaction hypothesis, below, doesn't require that either the excitatory or the inhibitory influences be specifically targeted at only a portion of the motor system.  All that is required is that the hippocampal-amygdala combination increase the level of DA at the D2 receptors thus decreasing the
Tonic Inhibition  and allowing behavior in accord with the hippocampal-amygdala comparison. 

So I need to find the reference for the "hippocampal-amygdala comparison".  If I remember correctly, it's filed in
 Nucleus Accumbens Septi .   


02-23-16

I'm going to try to update
Locomotion Sequence    to include the hypothesis, below, that "it's possible that the EEAs are either on or off at various strengths with all behavior being shaped by the inhibitory reward circuit".  I expect that this will be difficult. 

Perhaps I should take some time looking at  Early Behavior .  
   

02-22-16 

What's the interaction between excitatory amino acids (EAAs) such as glutamate and inhibitory neurotransmitters such as GABA and glycine? 

Important distinction:  GABA is controlled, at least in part, by the reward circuit, including the NAC.  It is much less clear what controls the EEAs. 

So, what does control the EEAs?   I suppose it's possible that the EEAs are either on or off at various strengths with all behavior being shaped by the inhibitory reward circuit, but so far I've seen no experimental evidence for this. 


02-21-16   

I've finished integrating  Inhibition of Locomotion in Lampreys   into  Central Pattern Generators .  

Come back to the question: 
The references use phrases like 'phasic GABA" and "MLR activity".  To what extent are these CPGs under a different name?    


02-19-16 

The references in  Tonic Inhibition  use phrases like 'phasic GABA" and "MLR activity".  To what extent are these CPGs under a different name?    

On 01-01-16 I asked the question: 
    " What is the interaction between the  Globus Pallidus (GP) and the  Nucleus Accumbens Septi (NAC)? ". 

I may have stumbled on two partial answers in Tonic Inhibition  : 

I've finished integrating  Tonic Inhibition   into  Central Pattern Generators .  Next I'll work on  
Inhibition of Locomotion in Lampreys   .    


02-18-16 

I've completed a third review of the 82 references in Central Pattern Generators  (CPGs).   Strictly from memory, the neurotransmitters in descending order of importance are:  glutamate, glycine, substance P, dopamine, 5-HT, and finally GABA.   However, this apparent order of importance may be biased toward excitatory transmitters by it's focus on CPGs.  Perhaps the next step should be to integrate the GABA pages with the CPG page. 

I've finished integrating  Lamprey GABA  into  Central Pattern Generators .  Now I'm going to start  integrating 
Tonic Inhibition   .     


02-14-16 

There are currently 82 references in  Central Pattern Generators .   Many of them are just bare-bone links without even an Abstract.  I'm now going to go back and give the more interesting of them not only an Abstract but also links to Similar articles.  Instead of working in chronological order as I usually do, I'll be working up from the bottom of the list; in reverse chronological order.   

Eventually I'm going to try to integrate what I've learned about   Central Pattern Generators  into
Locomotion Sequence  .  


02-13-16 

Combining the two searches was more difficult than I expected, but I think I've finally gotten it right.  However, there's still a lot more to do.       


02-11-16

I've completed the second review of  Central Pattern Generators  with special emphasis on the subset of 349 references listing Grillner as an author.  There's a lot here, so I'm going to have to go back through it again.     


02-05-16 

I've completed the first review of the 667 references in   Central Pattern Generators  (CPGs) and the additional 349 references I found when searching PubMed for "Grillner S".  Although my original focus was CPGs, I had a hard time ignoring references on different topics which I found interesting.  So both searches include references on topics other than CPGs.  I guess my next step is to go back over Central Pattern Generators  and find new places to file the references that are not directly relevant to CPGs.       


01-18-16 

Although   Central Pattern Generators  mentions many neurotransmitters, it seems especially focused on excitatory amino acids such as glutamate.  In contrast, it doesn't say much about GABA.
So perhaps it's time to take another look at 
    GABA
  ,  Medium Spiny Neurons  ,  Lamprey GABA  ,   GABA/Glycine Inhibition   , 
Tonic Inhibition  ,  Behavioral Disinhibition  ,  Inhibition of Locomotion in Lampreys   
Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys   .  


01-11-16 

My central focus continues to be: 
Locomotion Sequence  

Experimental data concerning this topic is spread out through numerous pages: 
Spinal Locomotor Generator    Central Pattern Generators  Lamprey Locomotion  
Activity of Reticulospinal Neurons During Locomotion      
Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys     Inhibition of Locomotion in Lampreys    
Salamander Locomotion     Reticulospinal Transmission   
Diencephaloreticular Transmission      Thalamic Neurotransmitters    
Dorsal Root Ganglion   Sensory System   Sensory Input     Spinal Cord  , 
GABA  ,  Medium Spiny Neurons  ,  Lamprey GABA  ,   GABA/Glycine Inhibition   , 
Tonic Inhibition  ,  Behavioral Disinhibition       Ventral Thalamus    

I clearly need to do some consolidation. 

  
01-03-16 

I've finished reviewing:  Pallidothalamic tracts   , Ansa Lenticularis  , 
Thalamic Fasciculus  (H1),       Lenticular Fasciculus  (H2) , Subthalamus   and 
Medium Spiny Neurons  . 

Eventually I've got to figure out how these fit into
Locomotion Sequence 


11-13-15 

 I've just added the   Ventral Thalamus  to
Locomotion Sequence  .  It may not be exactly right, but I think it's a step in the right direction.  However, I notice that    "SI >+ VTh >+ RAS >+ ..." is a series of three excitatory synapses.  Without some form of restraint, this would result in exponentially increasing excitation and destruction of the down-stream neurons.  So maybe it's time to take another look at 
    GABA
  ,  Medium Spiny Neurons  ,  Lamprey GABA  ,   GABA/Glycine Inhibition   , 
Tonic Inhibition  ,  Behavioral Disinhibition  ,  Inhibition of Locomotion in Lampreys    . 


09-11-15 

911, and I didn't even see it coming.  I'd go to a memorial event, if I knew of one close by, but I don't.  I did a web search.  Lots of other stuff, but almost no mention of the World Trade Center.   


09-05-15 

    I reviewed all 234 references in Thalamus Motor Relay and read the full Abstracts of all the references that seemed like they might discuss a direct pathway from the thalamus to lower motor centers.  None did.  All the pathways from the thalamus to the motor centers that they discussed passed through the cortex.  Didn't the thalamus of precortical animals such as the lamprey and the  salamander have a pathway to the lower motor centers?  I'm sure they must have. 

I need to take another look at:    Lamprey Locomotion              


08-03-15 

There seems to be very little acknowledgement of the importance of GABAergic disinhibition to behavior.  Searching  Motor Programs  for "gaba" found only one occurance in the entire page.  On the other hand, the references in Behavioral Disinhibition  give very little attention to just what behavior is being disinhibited.    

What allows some behaviors and not others to be disinhibited?  The reward circuitry, including the
Nucleus Accumbens Septi   may disinhibit non-emergency behavior, but what disinhibits emergency behavior? 
This sounds like the questions surrounding  Fast vs. Slow Twitch Muscles .    


01-30-15   

I had hoped that I would be able to identify specific neurotransmitters for the tracts reported by Herrick in 
Brain of the Tiger Salamander , but that's proving to be more difficult than I anticipated.  In particular, I'm having trouble reconciling  Tract Neurotransmitters  with Salamander Neurotransmitters .  There's very little overlap between the two.     

An additional problem is that I find myself torn between two goals: 
    Goal #1:  Make this website as comprehensive as possible. 
    Goal #2:  Study the physiology of human behavior. 

I'm going to drop Goal #1 and start concentrating on Goal #2. 
 
Come back to:  Lateral Forebrain Bundle .          


12-11-14 

This is a big day for me.  BHL ran a really nice review of my  Brain of the Tiger Salamander  website.  You can read it at: BHL and Our Users .   
  

09-15-14   

I've begun a major new effort.  I realized that my Subcortical Brain site was attempting to serve two different purposes:  
    1) supplement Herrick's presentation of salamander neuroanatomy with information which may be relevant to salamanders' neurotransmitters and hormones; and  
    2)  provide a model of subcortical function which will hopefully shed light on human behavior. 

Although these these two goals are not mutually contradictory, they are different, and dealing with both of them on the same website was awkward.  So I've split the site into two.   
    Goal #1, "supplement(ing) Herrick's presentation of salamander neuroanatomy with information which may be relevant to salamanders' neurotransmitters and hormones" has been moved to a new site, Herrick Update
    Goal #2, providing "a model of subcortical function which will hopefully shed light on human behavior" will remain in  Subcortical Brain .  I'm going to start with the    Lamprey Nervous System .     


05-30-12 

   I've now completed the first draft of an online version of C. Judson Herrick's 
Brain of the Tiger Salamander    


11-22-11 

I've resurrected an earlier website, Subcortical Brain , and given it a new focus.  I'll be working on it at the same time that I'm continuing to work on the other two websites and the earlier project, below.

I want to go back and work on an earlier project. As the culmination of a 30 year effort, in 2003 I published a paper:

Plasma Oxygen Permeability May be a Factor in Atherosclerosis 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15153663  

    I want to do a repeat study, but I can't do it alone.  Dr. Heppner, with whom I did the first study, is now completely tied up with his practice and is unable to help me a second time.  So I must find someone else.  For the next little while, I'm going to be working on that. 


07-31-11   

     I've completed the first version of the rewrite of Boys without Fathers centered on serotonin rather than testosterone.  It needs more work, of course, but this is, nonetheless, a milestone. 

     Since most of the research into the endocrinology of male socialization has centered on testosterone and aggression, that was my initial focus.  However, the boys who cause problems in the classroom seem more impulsive than violent, so I've rewritten the paper with a stronger focus on serotonin. 


03-13-11 

     My BA was in math, and the kind of math I liked best was deductive construction of complex intellectual results from a minimal number of simple axioms.  I turned to the amphioxus as a source of axioms for building an understanding of human psychology because I expected that it would provide me with a minimal number of simple biological facts that I could stitch together to provide a physiological explanation for human psychology. 

     The amphioxus defeated me.  It has turned out to be far more complex than I could ever have imagined.   So, I've started a new webpage, Boys without Fathers , and I'll be spending most of my time on that effort for the next several months.  


01-03-11 

     I'm going to change my focus.  When viewed at the receptor level, the amphioxus and its descendants are overwhelmingly complex.  So I'm going to step back and look at them at the organism level. 

     For the moment, Goals #1 and #2, below, appear to be out of reach.  So, for the next little while, I'm going to concentrate on the easier task of providing an endocrine explanation for why boys who grow up without a father have so much difficulty adjusting to society.   I'll come back to the larger task once this is done. 


7-8-10

Goal #1:  My main goal, of course, is to provide a physiological basis of human behavior.  

Goal #2:  Human physiology is bewilderingly complex, and I was assuming that the amphioxus was a simple little creature that I could use as a starting point for unraveling human complexity.  However, the amphioxus has turned out to be far more complex than I anticipated.  So, in order to understand the physiological basis of human behavior, I must first understand the physiological basis of amphioxus behavior, and that has proved challenging.   


4-2-10 

     Amphioxus Nervous System  now gives an overview of the amphioxus nervous system.  I had originally intended to go from the general discussion to a more detailed consideration of particular parts of the nervous system.  I've changed my mind. 

     I really think that, as important to human behavior and psychology as the nervous system might be, the endocrine system is even more important.  So I'm going to switch my focus from the amphioxus nervous system to the amphioxus endocrine system.  I still have many references on the amphioxus nervous system that I haven't yet summarized, but I want to spend some more time on the endocrine system first.   


Contact:  hummingbird_lou@yahoo.com 
 
     I try to check the inbox every day.  Comments and questions would be most welcome.   

CotA - Introduction - Version 5735 
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