Introduction

   To return to the home page of the website of whatever page you're viewing, click on the logo at the top left corner.   
    To reach the home page of one of the other websites, click on its link at the top of the home page.       
    Internal links are in green.      
    Historical Background & Free Book   tells where I began.   
    Another focus:  O2P Refs   in  O2 SM & ASVD .    See: 11-22-11  blog entry.         
    The  Dictionary is what it's name implies. 
    For readership, see:  Google Analytics Log .        
    Many of the articles in this website are, admittedly, quite technical. 
    If you just want to read about psychology in more or less plain English, check out:
   Online Self-Help , Online Psychology CompilationsHumans as Animals


10-15-18 

Come back to:  Emotional Habits 


10-04-18   

I've decided to concentrate for the next little while on Oxytocin  and its related references .  


10-02-18   

    I want to spend some time looking at humans. 

    Come back to:  Psychophysiology 



09-28-18 
    NOTE:  For the moment I'm going to switch my attention to


09-24-18   

Come back to:    
     Lamprey Motor Nerves    


09-23-18 

I noticed that many of the references cited "Grillner" as a source, so I searched for him. 
    Searching PubMed for "Grillner"  found 511 references: 


NOTE:  It turns out that there are at least two "Grillners"; "Grillner L" and "Grillner S".  It's "Grillner S" in whom I am interested.  "Grillner L" is somebody else. 
    Searching PubMed for "Grillner S"  found 365 references:

   
   
1966   511<511     
Grillner S, Lund S.
No abstract available, but:     

09-11-18 

     Excitation    >     Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys    



09-08-18 

I've spent the past couple of weeks working on  Excitation vs. Inhibition   . 


08-31-18 

I'm going to spend some time looking at the more physiological references in 


08-25-18 

What, if any, is the relationship between  Excitation  and Motor Program Disinhibition  ?     

     Excitation
        Glutamate    

        GABA  +   GABA  

    My comment
This is a better answer than I expected. 

Come back to:   Excitation vs. Inhibition


08-22-18 


The earliest forms of
Early Behavior are considered in  Pre-Bilateria Locomotion   


08-14-18 

The sequence, below, expresses an outside > inside viewpoint.   That is, the disinhibition results in observed behavior which is then explained as resulting from disinhibition of the motor programs. 

    1.  Behavioral Disinhibition   
    2.  Motor Program Disinhibition     


08-07-18 

I'm going to refocus my efforts from "levels of nerve activity" to "observable behavior." 
    See:   My Dysfunctional Family 


08-06-18   

I've completed  second review of the references identified in  Excitation vs. Inhibition .  I intend to go back through them a third time providing a link for some of the Related citations and perhaps expanding the Comments.  


08-05-18 

My interest in the  Excitation vs. Inhibition  dichotomy was based on my assumption that it reflected a active vs. passive dichotomy.    For the most part, it doesn't seem to.  Most of the references I found were concerned with levels of nerve activity rather than levels of observable behavior.  Perhaps I should go back and look specifically for levels of observable behavior. 


08-04-18 

I'm going to make a major change here.  Up until now I've been concentrating on the physiology of human behavior.  I want to switch over to what might be called the phenomenology of human behavior as reflected in some of the initial posts of this web page. 


    Internet Resources   
     Online Self-Help  
     Online Psychology Compilations     
         Biological Psychology    
         Humanistic Psychology    
         Psychodynamic Psychotherapy    
        General Psychology 


08-02-18 

    I've just noticed that I seem to be using the same title for more than one page.  The "Glutamate "  title, below, is an example. 
    The FIND command finds two different links containing that word, and also, the word itself.      

Glutamate    

Glutamate   

Glutamate

    PLEASE NOTE:  The code underlying the visual presentation can be visualized with the "mouse-over" function.  
    For more about the "mouse-over" function, please see:   MySpcLk  


07-31-18 
    Wikipedia said this about Glutamate  and therefore, indirectly, about  Excitation

    "Glutamate functions as a neurotransmitter in every type of animal that has a nervous system, including ctenophores (comb jellies), which branched off from other phyla at an early stage in evolution and lack the other neurotransmitters found ubiquitously among animals, including serotonin and acetylcholine.[14] Rather, ctenophores have functionally distinct types of ionotropic glutamate receptors, [14] such that activation of these receptors may trigger muscle contraction and other responses. [14]    
    Sponges do not have a nervous system, but also make use of glutamate for cell-to-cell signalling. Sponges possess metabotropic glutamate receptors, and application of glutamate to a sponge can trigger a whole-body response that sponges use to rid themselves of contaminants.[15]"   


07-30-18 

    Come back to:  Multiple Synapses
        My comment:
    This puts the Excitation vs. Inhibition  dichotomy into question. 

   
07-24-18 

For the next little while, I'm going to be taking the topics in the following order: 
    Excitation   
    Inhibition   


07-18-18 

Just to confuse things further, the number of references identified by searching PubMed for "excitation inhibition balance" has risen from 1093 to 1096. 


Come back to
blog dated:  01-09-17 

    I've created two new webpages:   Excitation  and  Inhibition .   This should facilitate my examination of  Excitation vs. Inhibition  .  



06-18-18 

Does  Behavioral Disinhibition  activate  Motor Programs
    See:  Motor Program Disinhibition  


06-17-18 

Come back to: the Blog entry at 020518,   Behavioral Disinhibition  and  Tonic Inhibition  . 


06-16-18 

I think the hypothesis presented below is missing a step.  As it is currently written, the excitatory glutamatergic input from the Amygdala  and the Hippocampus would be expected to result in inhibition of neural structures farther along the motor program, but this isn't what happens.  The excitatory glutamatergic input excites neural structures such as the thalamus and eventually results in overt behavior.  One possible explanation is that there is an additional inhibitory step such that the excitatory glutamatergic input excites inhibitory GABAergic interneurons thereby inhibiting the inhibitory GABAergic output and releasing the 
Tonic Inhibition which otherwise prevents behavior.  


06-15-18 

Possible answer to the question posed in the 06-13-18 blog entry, below. 

     GABA   is inhibitory, therefore every part of the brain to which it is projected is inhibited.   
    The  Nucleus Accumbens Sept (NAC)  uses GABA as its neurotransmitter.  Therefore,
    the NAC inhibits every part of the brain to which it projects. 
    Glutamate  is excitatory, and when it is projected to the NAC it excites the NAC and increases the    
    inhibitory influence that the NAC has on the parts of the brain to which it projects.       


06-14-18 

Motor Programs   currently has more than 20 subsections arranged in almost random order.  I think my next step might be to try to arrange them in some sort of helpful order. 


06-13-18 

From 02-25-18: 

     If I remember correctly, both the Amygdala  and the Hippocampus  use Glutamate  to project to the
Nucleus Accumbens Septi which in turn uses   GABA  to project to the rest of the brain.    
   
How does this relate to Motor Programs   ? 

Perhaps I should take another look at: 
   
Amphioxus Locomotion 
   
Lamprey Locomotion   
        Activity of Reticulospinal Neurons During Locomotion    
 
        Excitation    
            Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys    
         Inhibition    
            Inhibition of Locomotion in Lampreys    
        Excitation vs. Inhibition   

Part of the problem might be that

Motor program (Wiki) 

Says: 

    "A motor program is an abstract representation of movement"    ???? 

    Even computer programs are more objectively concrete than that.  `

    I need to find another definition of "motor program". 

NOTE:  Although Grillner doesn't mention "motor programs", he does talk about "locomotor networks", which are pretty much the same thing. 

See:  Motor Programs 


06-12-18 

There has been a sudden, unexpected change in PubMed search results for "amygdaloid-hippocampal convergence".   It says:
    "The following term was not found in PubMed: amygdaloid-hippocampus."

and

    "Search results 

    Items: 0 

  • No documents match your search terms
However, the link "Amygdaloid-Hippocampal Convergence  "  still works fine.  I'm going to assume that this is a temporary glitch in PubMed and shut down temporarily.  The problem may be due to their "Switch to their new best match sort order".  Their old search result found 43 references, the new result found 48 references, not including the old cited reference, and the new "best match sort order" finds 77 references: 


    Searching Google for "amygdala hippocampus convergence" located 283,000 references.    

    2003  Convergence and Interaction of Hippocampal and Amygdalar Projections within the Prefrontal Cortex
in the Rat   

    2017  Amygdala-hippocampal dynamics during salient information processing   

    1997  Single Neuron Activity in Human Hippocampus and Amygdala during Recognition of Faces and Objects   


    Searching PubMed for "amygdala hippocampus convergence" located 77 references.     

including the reference on which I was focused: 

1998    Electrophysiology of the hippocampal and amygdaloid projections to the nucleus accumbens of the rat: convergence, segregation, and interaction of i... - PubMed - NCBI 

which is now 14<77. 


06-11-18 

So far I don't see how  Amygdaloid-Hippocampal Convergence  provides an example
of a  Motor Program  .    


05-29-18 

Come back to:   Childhood Maltreatment


05-27-18 

At the beginning of   Early Behavior  , I remarked that "Since the most easily observable behavior is locomotion, I'll look at that first ", and I have.  However, there's certainly more to human behavior than locomotion, and I want to move on to that.     



05-25-18 

Correction to the  Important Announcement  in the 05-19-18  blog entry, below: 

I'm still researching it, but my current impression is that if I start off with a page in a
<hummingbird.lou@gmail.com> account, I can move to a different different page in that same account while maintaining an active editor. 

If I remember correctly, I generated the active editor by creating a new site in G Suite and then clicking the "Add account" button after clicking the account logo or site email address in the upper right corner of the page. 

Now that I've had more time to think about it, perhaps the problem I was having was because I was mixing the Google accounts.  Both were "gmail.com", but one was "hummingbird.lou" and the G Suite was "hummingbirdlou1".  It seems like both work when used separately, but when used together they crash the system.   
 

05-19-18 
   
     Important Announcement

I've just discovered the cause of the non-responsivness of the editor beginning on 03-20-18. 
G Suite changed my Google Account from
    <hummingbird.lou@gmail.com> to
    <hummingbirdlou1@gmail.com>. 
Now that I've switched it back, the editor is once again responsive. 


03-30-18 

Well, it's another 10th day and the  Google Analytics Log  continues to be unusable .  I'm going to stop here and not use it any more unless / until it gets better.         

A quick review shows that the peak reading was:
   
02-10-15   
47 non-empty sessions with an average session duration of 11:38 (11.63) for a total of 546.6 session minutes over the last month.


Come back to:  Early Behavior


03-23-18

Come back to:  01-05-18  blog     Porifera .

    I had not expected that sponges would have so many possible hormones. 
Perhaps the question,
    "How do Excitation  and   Inhibition  interact to form  
Early Behavior ? "   is an oversimplification. 
    See:
Parazoa   Porifera   Parazoa Hormones 
    and 
02-25-18  blog: 
     If I remember correctly, both the Amygdala  and the Hippocampus  use Glutamate  to project to the
Nucleus Accumbens Septi which in turn uses
  GABA  to project to the rest of the brain.    
   

03-20-18    
For previous readership, see:  Google Analytics Log .   


03-16-18   

To extend the comments of 02-25-18, below, see
   
Amphioxus Asymmetry   
   
Lamprey Asymmetry  
   
Human Asymmetry        


02-25-18 

    In response to the question asked, below, the Amygdaloid-Hippocampal Convergence  can be seen as emphasizing the nervous system and the left hemisphere while the
Parazoa Hormones  can be seen as emphasizing the endocrine system and the right hemipshere.    

    Is there any relationship between  
Amygdaloid-Hippocampal Convergence  and 
Parazoa Hormones 

    GABA and glutamate specifically induce contractions in the sponge Tethya wilhelma.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17021832     
    See:   Parazoa Hormones  

     If I remember correctly, both the Amygdala  and the Hippocampus  use Glutamate  to project to the
Nucleus Accumbens Septi which in turn uses   GABA  to project to the rest of the brain.    

    See: 
2003    Convergence and Interaction of Hippocampal and Amygdalar Projections within the Prefrontal Cortex in the Rat 

   Reference:   
McDonald AJ (1996) Glutamate and aspartate immunoreactive neuron of the rat basolateral amygdala: colocalization of excitatory amino acids and projections to the limbic circuit.    
    J Comp Neurol 365: 367-379.    

   
CrossRef    PubMed   Google Scholar   
          

02-18-18 

Come back to:  Amygdaloid-Hippocampal Convergence 


02-15-18   

Come back to:  Coelenterata Neuropeptides 


02-11-18

I've taken the first steps in combining 
Biological Psychology    Humanistic Psychology   General Psychology 
    and Psychodynamic Psychotherapy  
with  Online Psychology Compilations  

 

02-05-18   

    I've revised the circuit diagram in the 12-22-17 blog to make it more understandable. 
See below:        

     excitatory:
  
SI(Glu)>+  Cbl(Glu)>+  Th(Glu)>+  RAS(Ach)>+  MP    

    inhibitory

AMG(Glu)>+  Str/NAC(GABA)>-  SNr(GABA)>-  Th(Glu)>+     
    RAS(Ach)>+  MP             

HIP(Glu)>+  Str/NAC(GABA)>-  SNr(GABA)>-  Th(Glu)>+     
    RAS(Ach)>+  MP                                                                                  

SNc(DA1)>+  Str/NAC(GABA)>-  GPe(GABA)>- 
    STN(Glu)>+  SNr(GABA)>-  Th(Glu)>+  RAS(Ach)>+  MP   

SNc(DA2) >-  Str/NAC(GABA)>-  GPi(GABA)>-  
    Th(Glu)>+  RAS(Ach)>+  MP   

The notation
       "AMG(Glu)>+  Str/NAC(GABA)>-    
        HIP(Glu)>+  Str/NAC(GABA) >-  " 
represents the  Amygdaloid-Hippocampal Convergence .  It is identifiable in all creatures above the Amphioxus on the evolutionary scale .             
                                                                  
    See the Abbreviation Keys in Locomotion Sequence  and  Dopamine Receptors  .        


01-29-18  

    Come back to:  
2015    186<670   
Adult attachment style is associated with cerebral μ-opioid receptor availability in humans. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26046928      
    in Emotion  and My Dysfunctional Family  .  


01-05-18   

Come back to:   Porifera .   I skipped over them by accident yesterday.  

    I had not expected that sponges would have so many possible hormones. 
Perhaps the question,
    "How do Excitation  and   Inhibition  interact to form  
Early Behavior ? "   is an oversimplification. 
    See: Parazoa   Porifera   Parazoa Hormones  



12-29-17   

I've completed my review of the human psychology references.  I found almost no mention of the human endocrine system.  I'm now going to review my references on non-human endocrine systems. 

    Come back to:  
        Coelenterata Hormones   Coelenterata Neuropeptides           


12-27-17 

I've spent the last couple of days reading 

    Endocrinology - NCBI Bookshelf   
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22/   
        See:   Hormones in General  . 

    It's very informative and clearly written, but it's written for medical doctors rather than psychologists.  Maybe I should take another look at:  Biological Psychology



12-23-17   

Although I'm quite pleased with my progress on the
Amygdaloid-Hippocampal Convergence  , it's scope is limited to  Nerves .  I would like to broaden my view by considering  Hormones.     

    Come back to:  Hormones in General  . 


12-22-17   
I just noticed a mistake in the 12-18-17 blog.  The corrected diagram, which was subsequently revised on 02-03-18, should have been.   

     excitatory:
  
SI(Glu)>+  Cbl(Glu)>+  Th(Glu)>+  RAS(Ach)>+  MP    

    inhibitory

AMG(Glu)>+  Str/NAC(GABA)>-  SNr(GABA)>-  Th(Glu)>+     
    RAS(Ach)>+  MP             

HIP(Glu)>+  Str/NAC(GABA)>-  SNr(GABA)>-  Th(Glu)>+     
    RAS(Ach)>+  MP                                                                                  

SNc(DA1)>+  Str/NAC(GABA)>-  GPe(GABA)>- 
    STN(Glu)>+  SNr(GABA)>-  Th(Glu)>+  RAS(Ach)>+  MP   

SNc(DA2) >-  Str/NAC(GABA)>-  GPi(GABA)>-  
    Th(Glu)>+  RAS(Ach)>+  MP   
   

                                            https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Basal-ganglia-classic.png
(from Basal Ganglia )                                                                                
   
Although the notation
       "AMG(Glu)>+  Str/NAC(GABA)>-    
        HIP(Glu)>+  Str/NAC(GABA) >-  " 
does not appear in the colorful diagram of the Basal Ganglia  connections, above, it is visible in the monochromatic diagram and represents the  Amygdaloid-Hippocampal Convergence .  It is identifiable in all creatures above the Amphioxus on the evolutionary scale .                                                                               
    See the Abbreviation Keys in Locomotion Sequence  and  Dopamine Receptors  .  

    I recognize that this blog entry ignores the Cerebral Cortex .  For the time being, I'm concentrating on the Subcortical Brain  .  

For an improved diagram, see the 02-03-18 blog, above. 
                                                   
12-17-17
   
   Come back to:  Amygdaloid-Hippocampal Convergence     

    1998  60<Mulder AB   
Electrophysiology of the hippocampal and amygdaloid projections to the nucleus accumbens of the rat: convergence, segregation, and interaction of inputs. 
        Free Full Text:   
http://www.jneurosci.org/content/18/13/5095.long  
    Note:  This reference is from a photocopy I made almost 10 years ago.  I've been carrying the idea around with me ever since.      

    2003    50<77  or   52<131 
Individual nucleus accumbens-projection neurons receive both basolateral amygdala and ventral subicular afferents in rats.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12763065  
    This supports my hypothesis that the accumbens facilitates behavior when the needs influencing the amygdala match the memories, provided by the hippocampus, of how similar needs were met.       
BLA+HIP>NAC 


11-28-17 

Up until now,   Online Self-Help  ,  has been trying to deal with two separate issues at the same time: 

    1.  references on the internet which might be helpful to someone who is struggling with psychological discomfort,

    2.  and  the confusing "mouse-over" phenomena. 

I'm going to try to move the " mouse-over" references to a different page so that the only remaining  
Online Self-Help  references provide links which try to offer help to those who are "struggling with psychological discomfort".      
    Come back to:    MySpcLk   


11-21-17

The whole "mouse-over" phenomena is distracting me from my central focus of understanding human psychology.  I could just drop it, but  Online Self-Help was central to my effort, and it is the most badly afflicted of all the pages.  Below is a list of the pages I've generated which deal with mouse-overs.  Perhaps getting them all together in one place will help to end the confusion. 


        Online Self-Help    
        OnLineSelfHelp    
        MySpcLk   
        Online Psychology Compilations   
        OnLinePsychComp    
       MySpcWk   
        Cmp Hacking   
        MSPlink#1   


11-12-17 

In case you don't know what a "mouse-over" is, it's when you "hover" the mouse over a link on an inactive screen and a URL appears at the bottom of your screen. 

There is a major transition between  Online Psychology Compilations dated 11-12-17 and  MySpcLk  with two lists dated Feb and Nov 2011 .  The lists from 2011 are badly corrupted by the MySpace infestation while the 2017 list is entirely clean.   


11-11-17 

Come back to: Online Psychology Compilations .

Two links which appear identical. 

    Wikipedia Psych Portal: (Wiki) ^
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Psychology

    Wikipedia Psych Portal: & 
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Psychology
        Copied from: MySpcLk .

Note that the two links appear identical.  They are not.  The first, marked with a "^", is an active link which shows a mouse-over identical to the link.  The second, marked with an "&", shows a mouse-over with a lot of gibberish and is not active. 

This is the current focus of my attention. 
    

10-22-17 

This is a continuation of the 10-16-17 and 10-15-16 blogs, below.  I'm really very puzzled.  Either my imagination has completely distorted my memory, or the problem I thought I had with MySpace links has fixed itself.  ?    The only example I still have of the intrusive MySpace links is: 

            Archive:  www.msplinks.com:   
            https://archive.li/www.msplinks.com   

However, clicking on that link brings up perhaps 50 more MySpace links, none of which were ever mine.  

Note:  The "mouse over" response only occurs when the page is read-only.  It does not occur when the page is being edited and is open to being "Saved". 

10-16-17   

So why do some of the links work some of the time and not all of the links all of the time?   MySpcLk  provides a clue.  At the very bottom of that page there is a "Work Space" which has two identical copies of the same link, one of which works while the other doesn't.  I don't remember it at all, but it looks as though I found the second link by searching Google for the title.       
10-15-17   

While looking back over the earlier blog entries, I discovered that the statement in the 04-21-17 blog was overly optimistic.  It seems as though some of the links work some of the time but not all of the links all of the time.  I don't understand this. 

Come back to: 04-12-17,   MySpcLk and MySpcWk .   



10-13-17   

I've completed the first review of  Estrogen Accumbens  and identified 21 references for further study.   

    Come back to:   Testosterone Accumbens


10-01-17 

I've made a very cursory survey of the references in  Personality and used asterisks to mark a dozen or so for further attention.   

Come back to:   How does  Oxytocin  relate to  Testosterone  ?    And while I'm at it, how does it relate to  Estrogen
    Searching PubMed for "oxytocin testosterone" identified 317 references: 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=oxytocin+testosterone     


06-03-17 

     Diencephaloreticular Transmission  makes it very clear that there are many connections from the thalamus to the reticular formation.  So, that isn't a problem.
     However, I do need to incorporate this understanding into   Locomotion Sequence  . 


05-26-17 

    I'm beginning to realize that most parts of the brain probably receive both excitatory and inhibitory input.   So, how do I diagram that? 

    from:   Cerebellar Efferent Pathways 
2004    250<1217   
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15684654  
    "... cerebellar fibers are glutamatergic" 

    from:  4-29-17 blog entry, below:    
    Globus pallidus (GP)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globus_pallidus      
"When it comes to regulation of movement, the globus pallidus has a primarily inhibitory action that balances the excitatory action of the cerebellum."    

    from:Cerebellar Neurotransmitters  
    My comment
    "Both inhibitory (GABA) and excitatory (glutamate) neurons are present.  However, they play different roles.  The inhibitory, GABAergic, neurons stay within the cerebellum.  They modulate the excitatory, glutamatergic, neurons which extend beyond the cerebellum and function as the over-all output.  Therefore, looking at the larger picture, the cerebellum is excitatory rather than inhibitory. "         


05-05-17 

    The problem I'm having with  Locomotion Sequence  is that my diagram is very linear and implies that the cerebellum provides input only to the substantia nigra pars compacta.  This is not the case.  It supplies input to many, perhaps even most, brain structures.   
    See:  Cerebellar Efferent Pathways and  Diencephaloreticular Transmission  . 
    As below, I seem to have been assuming that the  Posterior Horn of the Spinal Cord  is one of the  Cerebellar Efferent Pathways .   It's not.  It's one of the  Cerebellar Afferent Pathways
    Come back to:  Spinal Cord    Cerebellum   Deep Cerebellar Nuclei     

 
04-29-17   

    Globus pallidus (GP)    from:    Locomotion Sequence  .     
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globus_pallidus      
    Important
When it comes to regulation of movement, the globus pallidus has a primarily inhibitory action that balances the excitatory action of the cerebellum."     


04-14-17 

    The time and energy I'm having to spend trying to fix the links in Online Self-Help   and  Online Psychology Compilations   demonstrates a vulnerability of the internet.  The information provided by the internet remains available only for as long as the provider of the information continues to function.  If the functionality of the information provider becomes disrupted, the information becomes unavailable.

   
04-12-17 
    The original motivation for these web pages was my interest in psychology. 
So imagine my surprise and disappointment when I discovered that the links in both Online Self-Help  and  Online Psychology Compilations  no longer worked.  Notice that the blog entry quoted above says that BOTH Online Self-Help  and  Online Psychology Compilations  no longer worked.  This is consistent with my memory.  But now Online Self-Help works, while some of Online Psychology Compilations still does not.  

04-21-17 

    It took eleven days, but I've finally fixed the URLs for most of the references in  Online Self-Help and
Online Psychology Compilations. Unfortunately, at the time of this entry, I was still confounding the two entries, so I'm unable to say which page had fixed URLs and which did not.  I also don't seem to have a clear record of how I fixed them.  I do have very clear memories, but those memories are strongly contradicted by the currently available evidence.     


02-04-17 

    I had not expected that sponges would have so many possible hormones.  Perhaps the question,
    "How do Excitation  and   Inhibition  interact to form   Early Behavior ? "   is an oversimplification. 
    See: Parazoa   Porifera   Parazoa Hormones  

   
    01-21-17 

    Both   Central Pattern Generators  and  Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys   contain references which indicate that glutamate and other excitatory amino acids play an important role in initiating locomotion.     


01-10-17 

    I just realized that my "Excitation ,   Inhibition , and  Excitation vs. Inhibition "  divisions from yesterday are over simplified. 

    1.  Inhibition of inhibition results in over-all excitation, but
    2.  excitation of excitation does not lead to over-all inhibition.   

I'm puzzled by the lack of symmetry. 


  01-09-17 

    I've created two new webpages:   Excitation  and  Inhibition .   This should facilitate my examination of  Excitation vs. Inhibition  .  


01-08-17 

    It's clear that the neuroendocrine system includes both excitatory and inhibitory elements.  Perhaps the  Autonomic Nervous System might provide a helpful perspective.   The  Excitation vs. Inhibition  dichotomy seems to be paralleled by a   Sympathetic Nervous System  vs  Parasympathetic Nervous System 
dichotomy.  
     See:  Sympathetic Nervous System  and   Parasympathetic Nervous System

 
12-29-16 

    I've done a pretty good job of reviewing the references in  Excitation vs. Inhibition   , but there is almost no consideration of the psychological, situational or metabolic causes of either excitation or inhibition . 
 

10-24-16 

    I've completed the first review of the references in  Cerebellar Neurotransmitters  .   Both inhibitory (GABA) and excitatory (glutamate) neurons are present.  However, they play different roles.  The inhibitory, GABAergic, neurons stay within the cerebellum.  They modulate the excitatory, glutamatergic, neurons which extend beyond the cerebellum and function as the over-all output.  Therefore, looking at the larger picture, the cerebellum is excitatory rather than inhibitory.  How do I integrate this into  Locomotion Sequence   ?    


10-14-16   

    I've completed my first review of the references in  Cerebellar Efferent Pathways  .   My initial impression is that the cerebellar output is more excitatory than inhibitory.  If so, it opposes rather than facilitates 
Tonic Inhibition.


09-24-16   

    I've reviewed the first dozen references linked in:   Cerebellar Afferent Pathways  .   My first impression is that the   Cerebellum  receives inputs from many different sources.  


09-23-16   

    I've reviewed the first dozen references linked in  Cerebellar Efferent Pathways  .  They make it abundantly clear that any input to the Cerebellum  from the   Posterior Horn of the Spinal Cord  may be forwarded to any of a large number of subcortical structures.   


09-15-16  

    fromDorsal Root Ganglion :            
    " Unlike the majority of neurons found in the central nervous system, an action potential in posterior root ganglion neuron may initiate in the distal process in the periphery, bypass the cell body, and continue to propagate along the proximal process until reaching the synaptic terminal in the 
Posterior Horn of the Spinal Cord .  "  
    My comment
So what is the next step after the Posterior Horn of the Spinal Cord


09-14-16 

I seem to be back to:    Locomotion Sequence  .   One of the important transitions is the inclusion of  **** 
Sensory Input
    See:   Pseudounipolar Neuron .    


09-12-16 

    Come back to:   1987    
Defense reaction elicited by injection of GABA antagonists and synthesis inhibitors into the posterior hypothalamus in rats.   
     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3037412  in   Fear .  
    See also:   Behavioral Disinhibition  . 


09-09-16 

Come back to:  1988 10<13
    Synaptic organization of the striatum   
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3069970     
    "The major physiologic function of striatal efferent activity appears to be inhibition of tonically active GABAergic neurons in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata."      in  Striatum   .  


09-06-16 

Up until now, my proposed  Locomotion Sequence   has been centered around the diagram in 
Basal Ganglia  .  I'm going to try a different approach focused on GABA  ,  Glutamate
Medium Spiny Neurons  the Ventral Tegmental Area  and the   Nucleus Accumbens Septi  . 


09-04-16   

I've completed the second review of the references in  Accumbens Input
Even a quick glance shows that there is still much to be done.  However,
I want to go back to   Locomotion Sequence   .     


08-26-16   

I've completed the first review of the references in  Accumbens Input  .    Of the 519 references located in the original search, 

    Searching PubMed for "Accumbens Input" identified 519 references:   
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=accumbens+input   

 I've chosen 71 for closer consideration.  See: Accumbens Input  .     


08-20-16 

My focus on   Accumbens Input  was motivated by the tacit assumption that
the   Nucleus Accumbens Septi   receives only a few inputs.  Now that it turns out
that it receives many, I don't know where to go.    Maybe I should take a look at: 
   
    Searching PubMed for "Accumbens Input" identified 518 references:   
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=accumbens+input  


08-15-16 

Come back to:  Locomotion Sequence  .    
I need to map the connections which reduce the  Tonic Inhibition   imposed by the
Nucleus Accumbens Septi
 

08-12-16   

GABA Testosterone  didn't help much. 
Searching PubMed for "gaba testosterone"  discovered 304 references.     
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=gaba+testosterone" but  came up with almost nothing.  

Searching PubMed for "testosterone nucleus accumbens " revealed 63 references: 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=testosterone+nucleus+accumbens  " and found a few references on both testosterone and estrogen in the NAC.  Reported "reward" but no mention of GABA or release of  Tonic Inhibition .      

Perhaps it's time to revisit: Locomotion Sequence   .   


08-11-16   

    On 05-01-16  I wrote: 

     "It occurred to me that the  Aggression  promoted by   Testosterone  requires at least some
Behavioral Disinhibition  of the Tonic Inhibition  ascribed to GABA/Glycine Inhibition .   

    To look into this further, I've started a new page: GABA Testosterone  ."        

It's easy to get distracted.  On 04-23-16, I wrote:   

    "I'm going to change direction for a while.  This collection of interlocking web pages is motivated by my own psychological problems.  Although I've really enjoyed studying our early ancestors, I seem to be a long way from relating what I've learned about them to my own psychological difficulties.  So I'm going to spend some time looking at the issue from the other chronological end. 
    See:  My Dysfunctional Family .   

    Since my own problems are centered around my dysfunctional mother, I'm going to start by looking for physiologic associations for what I perceive as her  Personality Disorders   ."   

    In the almost four months since then I've read a lot about our ancient ancestors.  I've really enjoyed it, but none of it seems directly relevant to my mother's  Sadism .  So now I'm going to try to get back to   My Dysfunctional Family  .  

    Come back to:  Aggression
 

08-10-16 

 For the first time I can remember, the average duration for a city has improved from one 10-day summary to the next: 

    On 07-30-16  Berkeley = 2 x 10:39. 
    Today Berkeley =  7 x 7:40 .

This is big news.   
     For prior Google Analytics, please see  Google Analytics Log  .       


08-09-16   

I've completed the first review of the references in  Protochordate Hormones   . 
Although there's a lot here that's interesting, most of it does not seem relevant to
my mother's  Sadism .    So I'm going to go on to  Amphioxus Hormones


08-04-16   

I've completed the first review of the references in  Sea Urchin  .  They are heavily biased toward thyroid hormones.  I don't know if this reflects an early evolution of thyroid hormones or just an early interest in them.     


07-24-16 

I've completed the first review of  Acrasin .   I didn't find anything that looked like a hormone, so I'm going to move on to:  Parazoa  , Porifera  and   Placozoa  . 


07-23-16 

Come back to:  Acrasin  . 

I'm still looking for the early precursors of hormones. 

  Prokaryote Colonies   : 
    quorum sensing molecules     
        Gram-positive / small (antimicrobial) peptides   
        Gram-negative / homoserine lactones 

  Slime Molds
    acrasins       
        cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate   (cAMP)   


07-12-16   

Although I never found a form of hormonal interaction at
the  Last Universal (Common) Ancestor  (LUCA) level, there are
many clear examples in  Prokaryote Colonies  
    Gram positive / post-translationally modified peptides  (or pheromones ) . 
    Gram negative / acyl homoserine lactone, AHL (autoinducers) 

In overall structure the archaea are most similar to gram-positive bacteria, as most have a single plasma membrane and cell wall, and lack a periplasmic space." 


07-03-16 

Even a quick glance will show that  Montmorillonite  is not complete.  However, I want to get back to "looking for some form of hormonal interaction at the  Last Universal (Common) Ancestor  (LUCA) level", so I'm going to change my focus to the Prokaryotes .  


06-27-16 

    Although I was looking for some form of hormonal interaction at
the  Last Universal (Common) Ancestor  (LUCA) level, I didn't find it.  However, I did find some references which I feel go a long way toward describing an environmental niche which would have protected the newly evolving prebiotic chemistry from external disruption.      
    See:   Montmorillonite


06-21-16 

Although it's a bit of a stretch, I'm going to start my research on the "very early beginnings" by looking at the   Last Universal (Common) Ancestor   .   It will be interesting to see if we have identified anything like a hormone associated with any of them. 


05-16-16 

There's always more that could be done, but I think that  
Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence   does a pretty good job
with BLA+HIP>NAC, so I'm going to go back to:     My Dysfunctional Family  .   


05-11-16   

I've just finished scanning through this Introduction starting with the earliest still-existing blog dated 4-2-10.  There are many loose ends; questions which I've never answered. 

I've decided to come back to the Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence, as first mentioned in the 03-04-16 blog entry.  


05-01-16 

It occurred to me that the  Aggression  promoted by   Testosterone  requires at least some
Behavioral Disinhibition  of the Tonic Inhibition  ascribed to GABA/Glycine Inhibition .   

    To look into this further, I've started a new page: GABA Testosterone  .        


04-28-16                  

Unlike the fatherless boys I considered in   Boys without Fathers  ,  my mother was more
Aggressive  than Impulsive  , so I'm going to try to apply what I learned about the endocrinology of the Aggression  exhibited by fatherless boys to my mother's Sadism  while ignoring the fatherless boys'  Impulsivity .   
    Up until now, the references I've found for  My Dysfunctional Family  have been almost entirely descriptive.  They've described symptoms and life events without asking about the underlying physiology. 
    In contrast, most of the references reported in Boys without Fathers  are firmly rooted in physiology.  Since the aggression discussed in  Boys without Fathers  seems similar to the aggression discussed in Sadism  I'm going to assume that they have similar underlying physiologies and copy the references which seem relevant from Boys without Fathers to Sadism .    


04-24-16 

I'm going to start out with   Sadism , since it was this that did the most harm. 


04-23-16 

I'm going to change direction for a while.  This collection of interlocking web pages is motivated by my own psychological problems.  Although I've really enjoyed studying our early ancestors, I seem to be a long way from relating what I've learned about them to my own psychological difficulties.  So I'm going to spend some time looking at the issue from the other chronological end. 
    See:  My Dysfunctional Family .   

Since my own problems are centered around my dysfunctional mother, I'm going to start by looking for physiologic associations for what I perceive as her  Personality Disorders   .  Using links from: 
    Personality disorder (Wiki)   
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personality_disorder#Cluster_B_.28dramatic.2C_emotional_or_erratic_disorders.29  

these are:   

    Sadistic    
    Dependent  
    Narcissistic         


04-22-16 

I've been looking at feeding and respiration as behaviors which preceded locomotion.  My working hypothesis has been that they are evolutionarily older.  But how are they related?  The only behavior that the amphioxus exhibits that I'm sure of is when it swims to the surface to reproduce.  (See: Amphioxus Behavior ) Otherwise neither feeding nor respiration elicit locomotion. 


04-20-16 

The location of the respiratory generator does not seem to be constant among different species. 
Come back to:  Lamprey Feeding & Respiration  . 


04-18-16 

It turns out that my hypothesis is only partially correct.  The amphioxus uses its "gills' for feeding, but not for respiration.  The lamprey uses its gills for both.   


04-17-16 

I just realized that, for filter feeders such as the amphioxus, feeding and respiration take place simultaneously.    So I've started a new page:  Amphioxus Feeding & Respiration   . 


04-16-16 

I've completed an initial survey of the references in   Lamprey Rhombencephalon  .   My most interesting impression is that hunger-feeding and possibly also respiration are below the reticular formation on the neuroaxis. 


04-12-16 

I've started a new page:  Lamprey Rhombencephalon  . 

    My comment
The Wikipedia article in  Rhombencephalon  did not mention the "posterior rhombencephalic reticular nucleus" which seems to be a major focus for some of the other references .   However, there are many references in Reticulospinal Transmission  which don't specify the name of the nucleus for the reticulospinal fibers and which, therefore, may be "posterior rhombencephalic".   

    Come back to:

posterior rhombencephalic reticular nucleus - PubMed 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=posterior+rhombencephalic+reticular+nucleus  
    40 references 


04-09-16 

Come back to:  Rhombencephalon     


1988  
Brainstem command systems for locomotion in the lamprey: localization of descending pathways in the spinal cord.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3219560  

    and 

1997
Diencephalic projection to reticulospinal neurons involved in the initiation of locomotion in adult lampreys Lampetra fluviatilis.  
     http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9421142  
in  Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys  seems to indicate that
the  Ventral Thalamus  projects directly to the  Mesencephalic Locomotor Region  and/or
the  Rhombencephalon   in the lamprey. 

 
04-08-16 

As far as I can tell, there's no direct path from the  Ventral Pallidum  to
the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region  (MLR) . 
The VP does provide input to some of the thalamic nuclei, such as the  
    ventral anterior nucleus, the  
    ventral lateral nucleus, and the  
    medial dorsal nucleus.  
but these nuclei seem to project exclusively to the cortex rather than to the MLR. 

It's beginning to look like the the only animal in which the  Ventral Thalamus  projects directly to the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region is the lamprey.   However, I need to come back and look at this more closely. 
    See:  Initiation of Locomotion in LampreysLamprey Thalamus  
and  Diencephaloreticular Transmission  .


04-07-16 

I'm particularly interested in the possibility of a direct path from the  Ventral Pallidum  to the  
Mesencephalic Locomotor Region  .    

I just realized that I need to add the  Ventral Striatum  to the Ventral Thalamus  , 
Ventral Pallidum  and  Subpallidal Area/Region   as possible sources of input to the  Mesencephalic Locomotor Region  .   


04-05-16   
 
I've been adding images to   Ventral Pallidum ,  and they really help my understanding.    


04-01-16 

I've spent the past 12 days, since 03-19-16, looking into the possibility that
the Ventral Thalamus  , the  Ventral Pallidum  and/or  the  Subpallidal Area/Region  might provide direct input to the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region  .   I will continue with this.    


03-28-16 

I'm currently reviewing and comparing   Subpallidal Area/Region 
and  Ventral Pallidum  . 


03-26-16 

I just realized that I've been conflating  Ventral Thalamus  ,  Ventral Pallidum 
and  Subpallidal Area/Region   . 


03-25-16 

I used the "Find" command to search the 23 references in  Subpallidal Area/Region   for "mesen".  I found 10 references to the Mesencephalic Locomotor Region   


03-24-16 

However, see:   Lamprey Thalamus  .  

What are the similarities and differences between the   Ventral Thalamus  and
the  Subpallidal Area/Region  ?   


03-23-16 

Some of the photocopies from 8-10 years ago seem to imply that there is a direct path from the  Subpallidal Area/Region  to the  Mesencephalic Locomotor Region  which bypasses the Thalamus .   

I need to look at this more closely.  Perhaps the Thalamus  is only important in the context of a  Cerebral Cortex  .       


03-19-16 

Although none of the references in   Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence   mentions the 
Substantia Nigra pars Compacta (SNc), the following diagram from Nucleus Accumbens Septi (NAC) shows input to the NAC from the Ventral Tegmental Area  (VTA).  At this point I don't see a clear difference between the SNc and the VTA.  As far as I can tell, it's a single neuroanatomical structure with two names.    

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc. Object name is CN-4-4-277_F1.jpg


03-18-16   

My attempt to integrate  Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence  with  Locomotion Sequence Revision ran into an immediate problem.  I used the diagram in Basal Ganglia as the framework for a very bare-bones guess about the sequence of events leading to locomotion.  This diagram shows only two inputs to the Striatum, one from the  Substantia Nigra pars Compacta  and one from the  Cerebral Cortex .


from: Basal Ganglia :

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Basal-ganglia-classic.png

Connectivity diagram showing excitatory glutamatergic pathways as red, inhibitory GABAergic pathways as blue, and modulatory dopaminergic pathways as magenta. (Abbreviations: GPe: globus pallidus external; GPi: globus pallidus internal;
STN: subthalamic nucleus; SNc: substantia nigra compacta;
SNr: substantia nigra reticulata) 

In contrast,  none of the references in   Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence   mentions the 
Substantia Nigra pars Compacta  .  This, however, may be due to observer bias.  I became very interested in the Nucleus Accumbens Septi  about 15 years ago, and my focus on "amygdala hippocampus convergence " reflects my ongoing interest.        


03-15-16 

    It won't be easy, but I'm going to try to integrate    Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence  with  Locomotion Sequence Revision  .  Part of the problem is that the notation in the original  
Locomotion Sequence  was never quite right. 
    So, at the moment, I'm back to working on    Locomotion Sequence    .       


03-14-16 

It's been a couple of years since I've done much with   Boys without Fathers  .   It's pretty much complete as it is.  However, I only just recently discovered:   
    Daniel Patrick Moynihan
    < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Patrick_Moynihan  >
and his 
    The Negro Family: The Case For National Action"
    <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Negro_Family:_The_Case_For_National_Action> . 

I've copied the links into Family Structure and will begin to look through it when I have a chance. 
 

03-13-16 

I've put the references in   Medium Spiny Neurons  into a single, chronological, list.  It was previously composed of two lists and a couple of fragments which were not chronologically integrated, and this made searching it difficult.  

I think   Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence  will be my next focus.    


03-11-16   
    2003    50<77
Individual nucleus accumbens-projection neurons receive both basolateral amygdala and ventral subicular afferents in rats.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12763065 
See:  Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.   
    My comment:   
    This supports my hypothesis that the accumbens facilitates behavior when the needs influencing the amygdala match the memories, provided by the hippocampus, of how similar needs were met.     


03-10-16  

I've attempted to resolve the two different pathways of locomotion sequence, but it's so complex I'm not sure I got it right.  I'll have to come back to this. 
     

03-09-16 

Locomotion Sequence  has two different pathways for locomotion sequence.  One of them considers sensory input, and one does not.  I need to resolve this. 
   

03-08-16
    Do both the GP and the NAC use GABA as an efferent neurotransmitter?   
Apparently the answer is "yes". 

     Medial Globus Pallidus    (internal globus pallidus)     
    "The medial globus pallidus (or internal, GPi) is one of the output nuclei of the basal ganglia (the other being the substantia nigra pars reticulata). The GABA-containing neurons send their axons to specific nuclei of the dorsal thalamus (VA and VL), to the centromedian complex and to the pedunculopontine complex.[1][2]
   
     Nucleus Accumbens Septi    
    "In culture, as in the intact nAcc, medium-spiny neurons account for over 95% of the cells and are GABAergic."     
    "GABA is one of the main neurotransmitters in the NAcc, and GABA receptors are also abundant.[19][21] 


03-06-16 

My next step will be to try to forge some synthesis between   Behavioral Disinhibition  and  
Locomotion Sequence    .  


03-05-16   

At first I thought I would try for a synthesis between Motor Programs  and  
Behavioral Disinhibition , but there was no mention of   Behavioral Disinhibition  
in any of the Motor Programs  references.  What's more, the only mention of
GABA was a very brief mention in the   5.1 Striatum and basal ganglia    section of the  "Procedural memory" reference.  

In contrast,  Behavioral Disinhibition mentions several behaviors which involve motor programs.  

   
03-04-16 

It looks like I've found the references for the "hippocampal-amygdala comparison" mentioned in the 02-24-16 blog, below. 
    See:    Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence   .   So now what? 

Perhaps I could try to forge some sort of synthesis between 
Locomotion Sequence   and  Behavioral Disinhibition  .     


02-24-16 

The EEA-GABA interaction hypothesis, below, doesn't require that either the excitatory or the inhibitory influences be specifically targeted at only a portion of the motor system.  All that is required is that the hippocampal-amygdala combination increase the level of DA at the D2 receptors thus decreasing the Tonic Inhibition  and allowing behavior in accord with the hippocampal-amygdala comparison. 

So I need to find the reference for the "hippocampal-amygdala comparison".  If I remember correctly, it's filed in  Nucleus Accumbens Septi .   


02-23-16

I'm going to try to update Locomotion Sequence    to include the hypothesis, below, that "it's possible that the EEAs are either on or off at various strengths with all behavior being shaped by the inhibitory reward circuit".  I expect that this will be difficult. 

Perhaps I should take some time looking at  Early Behavior .  
   

02-22-16 

What's the interaction between excitatory amino acids (EAAs) such as glutamate and inhibitory neurotransmitters such as GABA and glycine? 

Important distinction:  GABA is controlled, at least in part, by the reward circuit, including the NAC.  It is much less clear what controls the EEAs. 

So, what does control the EEAs?   I suppose it's possible that the EEAs are either on or off at various strengths with all behavior being shaped by the inhibitory reward circuit, but so far I've seen no experimental evidence for this. 


02-21-16   

I've finished integrating  Inhibition of Locomotion in Lampreys 
into  Central Pattern Generators .  


02-19-16 

The references in  Tonic Inhibition  use phrases like 'phasic GABA" and "MLR activity".  To what extent are these CPGs under a different name?    

On 01-01-16 I asked the question: 
    " What is the interaction between the  Globus Pallidus (GP) and
the  Nucleus Accumbens Septi (NAC)? ". 

I may have stumbled on two partial answers in Tonic Inhibition  : 

I've finished integrating  Tonic Inhibition   into  Central Pattern Generators .  Next I'll
work on   Inhibition of Locomotion in Lampreys   .    


02-18-16 

I've completed a third review of the 82 references in Central Pattern Generators  (CPGs).   Strictly from memory, the neurotransmitters in descending order of importance are:  glutamate, glycine, substance P, dopamine, 5-HT, and finally GABA.   However, this apparent order of importance may be biased toward excitatory transmitters by it's focus on CPGs.  Perhaps the next step should be to integrate the GABA pages with the CPG page. 

I've finished integrating  Lamprey GABA  into  Central Pattern Generators
Now I'm going to start  integrating  Tonic Inhibition   .     


02-14-16 

There are currently 82 references in  Central Pattern Generators .   Many of them are just bare-bone links without even an Abstract.  I'm now going to go back and give the more interesting of them not only an Abstract but also links to Similar articles.  Instead of working in chronological order as I usually do, I'll be working up from the bottom of the list; in reverse chronological order.   

Eventually I'm going to try to integrate what I've learned about  
Central Pattern Generators  into Locomotion Sequence  .  


02-11-16

I've completed the second review of  Central Pattern Generators  with special emphasis on the subset of 349 references listing Grillner as an author.  There's a lot here, so I'm going to have to go back through it again.     


02-05-16 

I've completed the first review of the 667 references in   Central Pattern Generators  (CPGs) and the additional 349 references I found when searching PubMed for "Grillner S".  Although my original focus was CPGs, I had a hard time ignoring references on different topics which I found interesting.  So both searches include references on topics other than CPGs.  I guess my next step is to go back over Central Pattern Generators  and find new places to file the references that are not directly relevant to CPGs.       


01-18-16 

Although   Central Pattern Generators  mentions many neurotransmitters, it seems especially focused on excitatory amino acids such as glutamate.  In contrast, it doesn't say much about GABA.   So perhaps it's time to take another look at 
    GABA  ,  Medium Spiny Neurons  ,  Lamprey GABA  ,   GABA/Glycine Inhibition   , 
Tonic Inhibition  ,  Behavioral Disinhibition  ,  Inhibition of Locomotion in Lampreys   
Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys   .  


01-11-16 

My central focus continues to be:  Locomotion Sequence  

Experimental data concerning this topic is spread out through numerous pages: 
Spinal Locomotor Generator    Central Pattern Generators 
Lamprey Locomotion  
Activity of Reticulospinal Neurons During Locomotion      
Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys    
Inhibition of Locomotion in Lampreys    
Salamander Locomotion     Reticulospinal Transmission   
Diencephaloreticular Transmission      Thalamic Neurotransmitters    
Dorsal Root Ganglion   Sensory System   Sensory Input    
Spinal Cord    GABA  ,  Medium Spiny Neurons  ,  Lamprey GABA  ,  
GABA/Glycine Inhibition   ,  Tonic Inhibition  , 
Behavioral Disinhibition       Ventral Thalamus    

I clearly need to do some consolidation. 

  
01-03-16 

I've finished reviewing:  Pallidothalamic tracts   , Ansa Lenticularis  , 
Thalamic Fasciculus  (H1),       Lenticular Fasciculus  (H2) , Subthalamus  
and  Medium Spiny Neurons  . 

Eventually I've got to figure out how these fit into Locomotion Sequence  . 


11-13-15 

 I've just added the   Ventral Thalamus  to Locomotion Sequence  .  It may not be exactly right, but I think it's a step in the right direction.  However, I notice that    "SI >+ VTh >+ RAS >+ ..." is a series of three excitatory synapses.  Without some form of restraint, this would result in exponentially increasing excitation and destruction of the down-stream neurons.  So maybe it's time to take another look at 
    GABA  ,  Medium Spiny Neurons  ,  Lamprey GABA  ,   GABA/Glycine Inhibition   , 
Tonic Inhibition  ,  Behavioral Disinhibition  ,  Inhibition of Locomotion in Lampreys    . 


09-11-15 

911, and I didn't even see it coming.  I'd go to a memorial event, if I knew of one close by, but I don't.  I did a web search.  Lots of other stuff, but almost no mention of the World Trade Center.   


09-05-15 

    I reviewed all 234 references in Thalamus Motor Relay and read the full Abstracts of all the references that seemed like they might discuss a direct pathway from the thalamus to lower motor centers.  None did.  All the pathways from the thalamus to the motor centers that they discussed passed through the cortex.  Didn't the thalamus of precortical animals such as the lamprey and the  salamander have a pathway to the lower motor centers?  I'm sure they must have. 

    I need to take another look at:    Lamprey Locomotion              

    Update:  See blog entry of 06-03-17.     


08-03-15 

There seems to be very little acknowledgement of the importance of GABAergic disinhibition to behavior.  Searching  Motor Programs  for "gaba" found only one occurance in the entire page.  On the other hand, the references in Behavioral Disinhibition  give very little attention to just what behavior is being disinhibited.    

What allows some behaviors and not others to be disinhibited?  The reward circuitry, including the Nucleus Accumbens Septi   may disinhibit non-emergency behavior, but what disinhibits emergency behavior?  This sounds like the questions surrounding 
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Muscles .    


01-30-15   

I had hoped that I would be able to identify specific neurotransmitters for the tracts reported by Herrick in  Brain of the Tiger Salamander , but that's proving to be more difficult than I anticipated.  In particular, I'm having trouble reconciling 
Tract Neurotransmitters  with Salamander Neurotransmitters  
There's very little overlap between the two.     

An additional problem is that I find myself torn between two goals: 
    Goal #1:  Make this website as comprehensive as possible. 
    Goal #2:  Study the physiology of human behavior. 

I'm going to drop Goal #1 and start concentrating on Goal #2. 
 
Come back to:  Lateral Forebrain Bundle .          


12-11-14 

This is a big day for me.  BHL ran a really nice review of my 
Brain of the Tiger Salamander  website.  You can read it at:   
     BHL and Our Users .   

    Biodiversity Heritage Library: Search results for Herrick    
    http://blog.biodiversitylibrary.org/search?q=Herrick       


09-15-14   

I've begun a major new effort.  I realized that my Subcortical Brain site was attempting to serve two different purposes:  
    1) supplement Herrick's presentation of salamander neuroanatomy with information which may be relevant to salamanders' neurotransmitters and hormones; and  
    2)  provide a model of subcortical function which will hopefully shed light on human behavior. 

Although these these two goals are not mutually contradictory, they are different, and dealing with both of them on the same website was awkward.  So I've split the site into two.   
    Goal #1, "supplement(ing) Herrick's presentation of salamander neuroanatomy with information which may be relevant to salamanders' neurotransmitters and hormones" has been moved to a new site,
Herrick Update
    Goal #2, providing "a model of subcortical function which will hopefully shed light on human behavior" will remain in  Subcortical Brain .  I'm going to start with the    Lamprey Nervous System .     


05-30-12 

   I've now completed the first draft of an online version of C. Judson Herrick's 
Brain of the Tiger Salamander    


11-22-11 

I've resurrected an earlier website, Subcortical Brain , and given it a new focus.  I'll be working on it at the same time that I'm continuing to work on the other two websites and the earlier project, below.

I want to go back and work on an earlier project. As the culmination of a 30 year effort, in 2003 I published a paper:

Plasma Oxygen Permeability May be a Factor in Atherosclerosis 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15153663  

    I want to do a repeat study, but I can't do it alone.  Dr. Heppner, with whom I did the first study, is now completely tied up with his practice and is unable to help me a second time.  So I must find someone else.  For the next little while, I'm going to be working on that. 


07-31-11   

     I've completed the first version of the rewrite of Boys without Fathers centered on serotonin rather than testosterone.  It needs more work, of course, but this is, nonetheless, a milestone. 

     Since most of the research into the endocrinology of male socialization has centered on testosterone and aggression, that was my initial focus.  However, the boys who cause problems in the classroom seem more impulsive than violent, so I've rewritten the paper with a stronger focus on serotonin. 


03-13-11 

     My BA was in math, and the kind of math I liked best was deductive construction of complex intellectual results from a minimal number of simple axioms.  I turned to the amphioxus as a source of axioms for building an understanding of human psychology because I expected that it would provide me with a minimal number of simple biological facts that I could stitch together to provide a physiological explanation for human psychology. 

     The amphioxus defeated me.  It has turned out to be far more complex than I could ever have imagined.   So, I've started a new webpage, Boys without Fathers , and I'll be spending most of my time on that effort for the next several months.  


01-03-11 

     I'm going to change my focus.  When viewed at the receptor level, the amphioxus and its descendants are overwhelmingly complex.  So I'm going to step back and look at them at the organism level. 

     For the moment, Goals #1 and #2, below, appear to be out of reach.  So, for the next little while, I'm going to concentrate on the easier task of providing an endocrine explanation for why boys who grow up without a father have so much difficulty adjusting to society.   I'll come back to the larger task once this is done. 


7-8-10

Goal #1:  My main goal, of course, is to provide a physiological basis of human behavior.  

Goal #2:  Human physiology is bewilderingly complex, and I was assuming that the amphioxus was a simple little creature that I could use as a starting point for unraveling human complexity.  However, the amphioxus has turned out to be far more complex than I anticipated.  So, in order to understand the physiological basis of human behavior, I must first understand the physiological basis of amphioxus behavior, and that has proved challenging.   


4-2-10 

     Amphioxus Nervous System  now gives an overview of the amphioxus nervous system.  I had originally intended to go from the general discussion to a more detailed consideration of particular parts of the nervous system.  I've changed my mind. 

     I really think that, as important to human behavior and psychology as the nervous system might be, the endocrine system is even more important.  So I'm going to switch my focus from the amphioxus nervous system to the amphioxus endocrine system.  I still have many references on the amphioxus nervous system that I haven't yet summarized, but I want to spend some more time on the endocrine system first.   


Contact:  hummingbird_lou@yahoo.com 
 
     I try to check the inbox every day.  Comments and questions would be most welcome.   




Intro.  
181014 - 1923             





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