Lamprey Dopamine

Cross references:     Lamprey Neurotransmitters     Lamprey  
Dopamine     Dopamine Receptors    Tyrosine Hydroxylase      
Dopaminergic Cell Groups    Dopamine Hypothesis             

Searching for "lamprey dopamine" yielded:           
        PubMed = 64           
        Google = 48,500    

     Some of the references identified in this search were more focused on anatomy than on dopamine.  I've filed those references in the relevant anatomy pages: 
Basal Ganglia ,
Globus Pallidus , Habenula , Nucleus Accumbens SeptiStriatum , and Ventral Tegmental Area

The hypothalamo-hypophysial system of the lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis L. III. High-resolution radioautography of monoaminergic structures in neurohemal regions    
    "The distribution of monoaminergic structures was studied in the proximal neurosecretory contact region and neurohypophysis of the lamprey by light and electron microscopic radioautography."  

Modulation of lamprey fictive swimming and motoneuron physiology by dopamine, and its immunocytochemical localization in the spinal cord.    
    "The distribution of dopamine immunoreactivity (DA-IR) in lamprey spinal cord was examined using antibodies to dopamine. This revealed a population of small cells slightly ventral to the central canal, with processes extending to it. Ventral to the cells is a sparse plexus of DA-IR fibers. Bath application of DA during glutamate-induced fictive swimming caused cycle rate acceleration"  

Control of lamprey locomotor neurons by colocalized monoamine transmitters.     
    "We report here that these spinal 5-HT neurons also contain dopamine. Like 5-HT, dopamine causes a reduction of the afterhyperpolarization, but in this case it is due to a reduction of calcium entry during the action potential, which results in a reduced activation of KCa."  

Modulation of swimming in the lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, by serotonergic and dopaminergic drugs.   
    "Injections of the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan along with the serotonin reuptake blocker clomipramine into the visceral cavity of lampreys resulted in significant increases in the cycle period of swimming, but had no significant effects on the propagation time of the swim waves down the body (normalized to cycle period), or on the degree of body curvature. Injections of the dopamine agonist apomorphine resulted in significant decreases of cycle period and body curvature with no significant effects on the normalized wave propagation time"  

Synaptic and nonsynaptic monoaminergic neuron systems in the lamprey spinal cord.   
    "The lamprey spinal cord thus contains distinct populations of synaptically interconnected monoaminergic neurons. Dopamine-containing LC cells synapse onto DA+5-HT-containing multipolar cells, in addition to GABAergic LC cells and unidentified spinal neurons. In contrast, the multipolar cells appear to exert their influence by nonsynaptic mechanisms."  

Dopaminergic modulation of spinal neurons and synaptic potentials in the lamprey spinal cord.    
    "The lack of dopaminergic effect on the late AHP of the locomotor network neurons, lateral interneurons and CC interneurons, and the selective reduction of IPSPs from CC interneurons suggest that synaptic modulation may play an important role in dopaminergic modulation of cycle period during fictive swimming in the lamprey."  Free full text

Immunocytochemical localization of dopamine and its synthetic enzymes in the central nervous system of the lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis.    
    "Our results revealed the presence of 10 populations of dopaminergic neurons in the brain of the lamprey in the olfactory bulb, preoptic area, hypothalamus, rhombencephalon, and spinal cord. In addition, uniquely DA-immunoreactive neurons, in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid, were observed in the hypothalamus and spinal cord. ... The dopaminergic system of the lamprey appears to share many features not only with that of other anamniotes but also with that of amniotes; however, as in teleosts, dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain corresponding to the substantia nigra, the retrorubral area, and the ventral tegmental area of other species do not exist in the lamprey."  

Afferents of the lamprey striatum with special reference to the dopaminergic system: a combined tracing and immunohistochemical study.

Forebrain dopamine depletion impairs motor behavior in lamprey.    
    "The structure of the basal ganglia appears to be conserved throughout vertebrate evolution, with characteristic cellular and transmitter components in each area, and the same types of afferent input. As described in rodents and primates, depletion of the striatal dopamine results in characteristic motor deficits. To explore if this role of the basal ganglia in modulating motor function was present early in vertebrate evolution, we investigated here the effects of striatal dopamine depletion in the lamprey, a cyclostome, which diverged from the main vertebrate line around 560 million years ago.  
    The lamprey striatum contains the same cellular elements as found in mammals, and receives the same types of input, including a prominent dopamine innervation. We show here that MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine; 100 mg/kg i.p.), a neurotoxin, depletes forebrain and striatal dopamine levels in lamprey to 15% of control values, and has profound effects on motor performance. Twenty-four and 48 h after MPTP injection, lampreys demonstrated marked reductions in spontaneous swimming and the duration of each swimming episode. Impairments in the ability to initiate movements were shown by a decreased rate of initiation. Furthermore, the initiation and maintenance of locomotion induced by olfactory mucosa stimulation was severely impaired, as was the coordination of different motor tasks. These deficits were ameliorated by the dopamine agonist apomorphine.  
    The motor deficits arising after striatal dopamine depletion are thus qualitatively similar in cyclostomes and mammals. The role of the dopamine innervation of the striatum thus appears to be conserved throughout vertebrate evolution."  

Colocalization of dopamine and GABA in spinal cord neurones in the sea lamprey.    
    "In this study, double immunofluorescence methods were used to investigate possible colocalization of the neurotransmitters dopamine [DA] and GABA in rostral spinal cord neurones in the upstream migrating adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).  
    Double immunofluorescence revealed that all the DA-immunoreactive (ir) cerebrospinal fluid-contacting (CSF-c) cells, approximately 30% of the medioventral DA-ir cells, and most of the DA-ir cells located in the grey lateral to the central canal were also GABA-ir. The results also revealed some DA-ir cells located dorsally to the central canal, which increases the number of dopaminergic cell types known in lamprey.  
    Double-labelled fibres were mainly distributed in the ventral column, and double-labelled boutons contacted some dorsal GABA-ir CSF-c cells, as well as some non-CSF-c GABA-ir cells and ventromedial dendrites of motoneurones. The findings reveal colocalization of dopamine and GABA in some cells and fibres, which suggests co-release of these substances in some synaptic terminals. Although dopaminergic/GABAergic CSF-c cells have been reported in some other vertebrates, the other double-labelled spinal populations appear exclusive to lampreys."  

Dopamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid are colocalized in restricted groups of neurons in the sea lamprey brain: insights into the early evolution of neurotransmitter colocalization in vertebrates.    
    "Since its discovery, the possible corelease of classic neurotransmitters from neurons has received much attention. Colocalization of monoamines and amino acidergic neurotransmitters [mainly glutamate and dopamine (DA) or serotonin] in mammalian neurons has been reported. However, few studies have dealt with the colocalization of DA and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in neurons. With the aim of providing some insight into the colocalization of neurotransmitters during early vertebrate phylogeny, we studied GABA expression in dopaminergic neurons in the sea lamprey brain by using double-immunofluorescence methods with anti-DA and anti-GABA antibodies.    
    Different degrees of colocalization of DA and GABA were observed in different dopaminergic brain nuclei. A high degree of colocalization (GABA in at least 25% of DA-immunoreactive neurons) was observed in populations of the caudal rhombencephalon, ventral isthmus, postoptic commissure nucleus, preoptic nucleus and in granule-like cells of the olfactory bulb. A new DA-immunoreactive striatal population that showed colocalization with GABA in about a quarter of its neurons was observed.  
    In the periventricular hypothalamus, colocalization was observed in only a few cells, despite the abundance of DA- and GABA-immunoreactive neurons, and no double-labelled cells were observed in the paratubercular nucleus. The frequent colocalization of DA and GABA reveals that the dopaminergic populations of lampreys are more complex than previously reported. Double-labelled fibres or terminals were observed in different brain regions, suggesting possible corelease of DA and GABA by these lamprey neurons.  
    The present results suggest that colocalization of DA and GABA in neurons appeared early in vertebrate evolution."  
     - Free PMC Article -   

The dopamine D2 receptor gene in lamprey, its expression in the striatum and cellular effects of D2 receptor activation.     
    "All basal ganglia subnuclei have recently been identified in lampreys, the phylogenetically oldest group of vertebrates. Furthermore, the interconnectivity of these nuclei is similar to mammals and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (dopaminergic) fibers have been detected within the input layer, the striatum.  Striatal processing is critically dependent on the interplay with the dopamine system, and we explore here whether D2 receptors are expressed in the lamprey striatum and their potential role.  
    We have identified a cDNA encoding the dopamine D2 receptor from the lamprey brain and the deduced protein sequence showed close phylogenetic relationship with other vertebrate D2 receptors, and an almost 100% identity within the transmembrane domains containing the amino acids essential for dopamine binding. There was a strong and distinct expression of D2 receptor mRNA in a subpopulation of striatal neurons, and in the same region tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive synaptic terminals were identified at the ultrastructural level. The synaptic incidence of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive boutons was highest in a region ventrolateral to the compact layer of striatal neurons, a region where most striatal dendrites arborise. Application of a D2 receptor agonist modulates striatal neurons by causing a reduced spike discharge and a diminished post-inhibitory rebound.  
    We conclude that the D2 receptor gene had already evolved in the earliest group of vertebrates, cyclostomes, when they diverged from the main vertebrate line of evolution (560 mya), and that it is expressed in striatum where it exerts similar cellular effects to that in other vertebrates. These results together with our previous published data (Stephenson-Jones et al. 2011, 2012) further emphasize the high degree of conservation of the basal ganglia, also with regard to the indirect loop, and its role as a basic mechanism for action selection in all vertebrates."   
   - Free PMC Article

Dopamine differentially modulates the excitability of striatal neurons of the direct and indirect pathways in lamprey.        
    "The functions of the basal ganglia are critically dependent on dopamine. In mammals, dopamine differentially modulates the excitability of the direct and indirect striatal projection neurons, and these populations selectively express dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, respectively. Although the detailed organization of the basal ganglia is conserved throughout the vertebrate phylum, it was unknown whether the differential dopamine modulation of the direct and indirect pathways is present in non-mammalian species. We aim here to determine whether the receptor expression and opposing dopaminergic modulation of the direct and indirect pathways is present in one of the phylogenetically oldest vertebrates, the river lamprey.  
    Using in situ hybridization and patch-clamp recordings, we show that D1 receptors are almost exclusively expressed in the striatal neurons projecting directly to the homolog of the substantia nigra pars reticulata. In addition, the majority of striatal neurons projecting to the homolog of the globus pallidus interna/globus pallidus externa express D1 or D2 receptors.  
    As in mammals, application of dopamine receptor agonists differentially modulates the excitability of these neurons, increasing the excitability of the D1-expressing neurons and decreasing the excitability of D2-expressing neurons. Our results suggest that the segregated expression of the D1 and D2 receptors in the direct and indirect striatal projection neurons has been conserved across the vertebrate phylum. Because dopamine receptor agonists differentially modulate these pathways, increasing the excitability of the direct pathway and decreasing the excitability of the indirect pathway, this organization may be conserved as a mechanism that biases the networks toward action selection." 
Free Article   

Forebrain dopamine neurons project down to a brainstem region controlling locomotion.   
    "The contribution of dopamine (DA) to locomotor control is traditionally attributed to ascending dopaminergic projections from the substantia nigra pars compacta and the ventral tegmental area to the basal ganglia, which in turn project down to the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), a brainstem region controlling locomotion in vertebrates. However, a dopaminergic innervation of the pedunculopontine nucleus, considered part of the MLR, was recently identified in the monkey. The origin and role of this dopaminergic input are unknown. We addressed these questions in a basal vertebrate, the lamprey.  
    Here we report a functional descending dopaminergic pathway from the posterior tuberculum (PT; homologous to the substantia nigra pars compacta and/or ventral tegmental area of mammals) to the MLR. By using triple labeling, we found that dopaminergic cells from the PT not only project an ascending pathway to the striatum, but send a descending projection to the MLR. In an isolated brain preparation, PT stimulation elicited excitatory synaptic inputs into patch-clamped MLR cells, accompanied by activity in reticulospinal cells. By using voltammetry coupled with electrophysiological recordings, we demonstrate that PT stimulation evoked DA release in the MLR, together with the activation of reticulospinal cells. In a semi-intact preparation, stimulation of the PT elicited reticulospinal activity together with locomotor movements. Microinjections of a D1 antagonist in the MLR decreased the locomotor output elicited by PT stimulation, whereas injection of DA had an opposite effect.  
    It appears that this descending dopaminergic pathway has a modulatory role on MLR cells that are known to receive glutamatergic projections and promotes locomotor output. "    
  - Free PMC Article -   

Evolutionarily conserved organization of the dopaminergic system in lamprey: SNc/VTA afferent and efferent connectivity and D2 receptor expression.   
    "The dopaminergic system influences motor behavior, signals reward and novelty, and is an essential component of the basal ganglia in all vertebrates including the lamprey, one of the phylogenetically oldest vertebrates. The intrinsic organization and function of the lamprey basal ganglia is highly conserved. For instance, the direct and indirect pathways are modulated through dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in lamprey and in mammals. The nucleus of the tuberculum posterior, a homologue of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc)/ventral tegmental area (VTA) is present in lamprey, but only scarce data exist about its connectivity. Likewise, the D2 receptor is expressed in the striatum, but little is known about its localization in other brain areas. 
     We used in situ hybridization and tracer injections, both in combination with tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry, to characterize the SNc/VTA efferent and afferent connectivity, and to relate its projection pattern with D2 receptor expression in particular. We show that most features of the dopaminergic system are highly conserved. As in mammals, the direct pallial (cortex in mammals) input and the basal ganglia connectivity with the SNc/VTA are present as part of the evaluation system, as well as input from the tectum as the evolutionary basis for salience/novelty detection. Moreover, the SNc/VTA receives sensory information from the olfactory bulbs, optic tectum, octavolateral area, and dorsal column nucleus, and it innervates, apart from the nigrostriatal pathway, several motor-related areas.  
    This suggests that the dopaminergic system also contributes to the control of different motor centers at the brainstem level."  

Dopamine: a parallel pathway for the modulation of spinal locomotor networks.     
    "The spinal cord contains networks of neurons that can produce locomotor patterns. To readily respond to environmental conditions, these networks must be flexible yet at the same time robust. Neuromodulators play a key role in contributing to network flexibility in a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate networks. For example, neuromodulators contribute to altering intrinsic properties and synaptic weights that, in extreme cases, can lead to neurons switching between networks.  
    Here we focus on the role of dopamine in the control of stepping networks in the spinal cord. We first review the role of dopamine in modulating rhythmic activity in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) and the leech, since work from these preparations provides a foundation to understand its role in vertebrate systems. We then move to a discussion of dopamine's role in modulation of swimming in aquatic species such as the larval xenopus, lamprey and zebrafish. 
   The control of terrestrial walking in vertebrates by dopamine is less studied and we review current evidence in mammals with a focus on rodent species. We discuss data suggesting that the source of dopamine within the spinal cord is mainly from the A11 area of the diencephalon, and then turn to a discussion of dopamine's role in modulating walking patterns from both in vivo and in vitro preparations.  
    Similar to the descending serotonergic system, the dopaminergic system may serve as a potential target to promote recovery of locomotor function following spinal cord injury (SCI); evidence suggests that dopaminergic agonists can promote recovery of function following SCI. We discuss pharmacogenetic and optogenetic approaches that could be deployed in SCI and their potential tractability. Throughout the review we draw parallels with both noradrenergic and serotonergic modulatory effects on spinal cord networks. In all likelihood, a complementary monoaminergic enhancement strategy should be deployed following SCI. "  

CotA  Lamprey Dopamine   
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