Cross references: Lamprey Neurotransmitters GlutamateNote: Many of the references found when searching for "lamprey glutamate" were about locomotion, and I've filed them in Lamprey Locomotion .
Glutamate Gate Glutamate Metabotropic Receptor
Serching for "lamprey glutamate" yielded:
PubMed = 208 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=lamprey+glutamate
Google = 1,090,000 https://www.google.com/search?q=lamprey+glutamate&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a&channel=np&source=hp
The glutamatergic neurons in the spinal cord of the sea lamprey: an in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical study.
"Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter involved in spinal cord circuits in vertebrates, but in most groups the distribution of glutamatergic spinal neurons is still unknown. Lampreys have been extensively used as a model to investigate the neuronal circuits underlying locomotion. Glutamatergic circuits have been characterized on the basis of the excitatory responses elicited in postsynaptic neurons. However, the presence of glutamatergic neurochemical markers in spinal neurons has not been investigated. In this study, we report for the first time the expression of a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) in the spinal cord of the sea lamprey. We also study the distribution of glutamate in perikarya and fibers. The largest glutamatergic neurons found were the dorsal cells and caudal giant cells. Two additional VGLUT-positive gray matter populations, one dorsomedial consisting of small cells and another one lateral consisting of small and large cells were observed. Some cerebrospinal fluid-contacting cells also expressed VGLUT. In the white matter, some edge cells and some cells associated with giant axons (Müller and Mauthner axons) and the dorsolateral funiculus expressed VGLUT. Large lateral cells and the cells associated with reticulospinal axons are in a key position to receive descending inputs involved in the control of locomotion. We also compared the distribution of glutamate immunoreactivity with that of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine. Colocalization of glutamate and GABA or glycine was observed in some small spinal cells. These results confirm the glutamatergic nature of various neuronal populations, and reveal new small-celled glutamatergic populations, predicting that some glutamatergic neurons would exert complex actions on postsynaptic neurons."
Glutamatergic neuronal populations in the brainstem of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus: an in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical study.
"Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in vertebrates, and glutamatergic cells probably represent a majority of neurons in the brain. Physiological studies have demonstrated a wide presence of excitatory (glutamatergic) neurons in lampreys. The present in situ hybridization study with probes for the lamprey vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) provides an anatomical basis for the general distribution and precise localization of glutamatergic neurons in the sea lamprey brainstem. Most glutamatergic neurons were found within the periventricular gray layer throughout the brainstem, with the following regions being of particular interest: the optic tectum, torus semicircularis, isthmus, dorsal and medial nuclei of the octavolateral area, dorsal column nucleus, solitary tract nucleus, motoneurons, and reticular formation. The reticular population revealed a high degree of cellular heterogeneity including small, medium-sized, large, and giant glutamatergic neurons. We also combined glutamate immunohistochemistry with neuronal tract-tracing methods or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunohistochemistry to better characterize the glutamatergic populations. Injection of Neurobiotin into the spinal cord revealed that retrogradely labeled small and medium-sized cells of some reticulospinal-projecting groups were often glutamate-immunoreactive, mostly in the hindbrain. In contrast, the large and giant glutamatergic reticulospinal perikarya mostly lacked glutamate immunoreactivity. These results indicate that glutamate immunoreactivity did not reveal the entire set of glutamatergic populations. Some spinal-projecting octaval populations lacked both VGLUT and glutamate. As regards GABA and glutamate, their distribution was largely complementary, but colocalization of glutamate and GABA was observed in some small neurons, suggesting that glutamate immunohistochemistry might also detect non-glutamatergic cells or neurons that co-release both GABA and glutamate."