Lamprey Nervous System

Cross reference:  Lamprey       Brain of the Tiger Salamander     Basal Ganglia   
Tract Details     Figure Labels   Axon Groupings      Dictionary     
Lateral Forebrain Bundle    Reticulospinal Transmission    Lamprey Nucleus Accumbens     
Central Pattern Generators        Locomotion Sequence Revision  

 
Lamprey Brain   
    The Cambridge Natural History v.7 (1904) Chap XIV  p. 390-397
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/48224#416
      (Give it a few seconds to load.)   
 




Just from the outside, it's quite clear that the lamprey brain is very similar to the salamander brain and completely dissimilar to the amphioxus brain.  Since there are no surviving species intermittent between the amphioxus and the lamprey, this leaves us with a huge gap in our understanding. 

The amphioxus has only very rudimentary sensory awareness of light, touch, vibration and possibly pheromones while the lamprey has the same five senses as you and I.  The huge expansion of the brain from amphioxus to lamprey is universally attributed to the broadening of its sensory input. 


Searching PubMed for "lamprey brain" found first, 984, and then 985 - 987 references:  
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=lamprey+brain     

Notes:  
1.  During the month that I spent on the initial survey of the PubMed references for "lamprey brain", the number of references rose from 984 to 987.  I started using the new numbers as they came along but will not change the old numbers.  This is bound to cause some confusion, but I think it's the best use of my time and energy.   
2.  My choice of which of the references to look at more closely is strongly influenced by my interest in the possible role that GABA and other inhibitory neurotransmitters/neuromodulators play in behavior. 


1948   
Fundamental Principles in the Structure of the Brain:  a study of the brain of petromyzon fluviatils
     Per Heier, Acta Anatomica, Supp. 8 Vol. V, p. 9-213.   
http://www.karger.com/Article/PDF/140698    
Only PDF of table of contents available online.   
I obtained the hard copy from: UCB biology library - QL 801 A2 v.5-6  
My comments
:   
    1.    Figs. 1C and 2B show both the Corpus Striatum   (c.s.) and the primordium Hippocampus (prim. hip.) as being caudal (towards the tail) of the Interventricular foramina (F).  It seems to me that this would locate them in the diencephalon, rather than the telencephalon.  I find it difficult to believe that, once established caudal to Interventricular foramina , the Hippocampus and Striatum would be able to migrate to positions cephalad (towards the head) of the foramen.   
    2.    Fig. 22 on page 88 shows both a tr. tegmento-thalamicus and a tr. thalamo-frontalis.  Together, these would provide a path from the Raphe Nuclei in the Tegmentum to the Nucleus Accumbens Septi in the  Striatum .   



1954    983<984
    The occurrence of a waterbalance-, a melanophore-expanding and an oxytocic principle in the pituitary gland of the river-lamprey (Lampetra fluviati...
    See   Lamprey Hormones for Google Abstract and Related citations.  


1974    949<984  
Synaptic interactions of reticulospinal neurons and nerve cells in the spinal cord of the sea lamprey.  
    "individual cell bodies and axons of identified reticulospinal neurons were stimulated intracellularly while recording from spinal interneurons and motoneurons"  
    See: 142<150 in  Reticulospinal Transmission   for full Google Abstract.  

1977    930<984 
Synaptic effects induced in lamprey motor neurons by direct stimulation of individual presynaptic fibers   
    "It is shown that monosynaptic reticulomotoneuronal EPSPs contain both electrical and chemical components"  
    See:    135<150 in   Reticulospinal Transmission  for full Abstract and Related citations . 


1977   917<984 
Physiological and anatomical characteristics of reticulospinalneurones in lamprey.  
    "glutamate produced bursts of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic potentials, presumably by depolarizing excitatory or inhibitory nerve terminals or nearby cell bodies" 
    See:  Reticulospinal Transmission  for full Abstract, Related citations and Free PMC Article.  


1977  916<984
Interneuronal synapses with electrical and chemical mechanisms of transmission and the evolution of the central nervous system
     "It becomes increasingly evident that not only chemical but also electrotonic synapses are characteristic feature of the vertebrate brain."
    See:  Motor Neuron Evolution  for full Abstract and Related citations .   


1977  913<984
Glycine and GABA receptors on lamprey bulbar reticulospinal neurones
    "Intracellular recordings were made from the bulbar group of reticulospinal neurones of lamprey ammocoetes during the application of glycine and GABA to the bath."  
    See:  GABA/Glycine Inhibition  for full Abstract and Related citations .   


1978   908<984 
    The reticular formation of lampreys (Petromyzonidae)--a target area for exohypothalamic vasotocinergic fibres.
    "The octapeptide vasotocin, which is formed in the classical neurosecretory nuclei of lampreys (Petromyzonidae), is transported, bound to the carrier protein neurophysin, not only to the neurohypophysis but also to various other regions of the brain via exohypothalamic fibres. 
    See:   Lamprey Neuropeptides  for full Abstract and Related citations .       

1979  903<984 
A study of the morphology of the large reticulospinal neurons of the lamprey ammocoete by intracellular injection of Procion yellow.      
    "The vagal, bulbar, Mauthner, isthmic and mesencephalic groups could be distinguished by the shape and size of their somata and the distribution of their dendrites."  
    This is the first time I've encountered any mention of identifiable "groups"  of reticulospinal neurons. 
    See:   Lamprey Motor Nerves  for full Abstract and Related citations .   


1979  896<984 
Evolution of neuronal connecting mechanisms: electrical, mixed and chemical synapses (Russian)
    "... decrease in the number of electrical synapses during evolution from primitive to more advanced vertebrates. Electrical transmission is lacking in reptilian and mammalian cord."  
    See:  Neurotransmitter Evolution for full Abstract and Related citations. 


1979 889<984
Immunocytochemical studies of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in brains of agnathan fishes: II. Patterns of immunoreactivity in larval and maturing Western brook lamprey (Lampetra richardsoni) 
    "A change in number of cells stained, and in quality of staining was coincident with metamorphosis and sexual maturation"  
    See: Lamprey Hormones  for full Abstract and Related citations.   


1980 872<984
Estrogen target cells in the forebrain of river lamprey, Ichthyomyzon unicuspis  
    "The autoradiographic results demonstrate the presence of estrogen target cells in the brain of descendents of one of the phylogenetically earliest vertebrate lines. "  
    See: Lamprey Hormones  for full Abstract and Related citations.   


1981  861<984 
Autoradiographic studies of estrogen target cells in the forebrain of larval lamprey, Petromyzon marinus  
    "The topographical distribution of estrogen target neurons in larval lamprey is similar to that of adult animals."  
    See: Lamprey Hormones  for full Abstract and Related citations.   


1982 854<985
Brain neurons which project to the spinal cord in young larvae of the zebrafish
    "The observed distribution of labeled reticulospinal cells is similar to that previously described for large reticular cells in adult teleosts and to the system of identified Mauthner and Müller cells in the lamprey."
    See: Teleost Prey Catching  for full Abstract and Related citations.   


1983  831<985 
Inhibitory conductance changes at synapses in the lamprey brainstem  
    "These results support the idea that glycine is the natural inhibitory transmitter at these synapses and suggest that one quantum of transmitter activates about 1500 elementary conductance channels."  
    See:  Lamprey Neurotransmitters  for full Abstract and Related citations.   


1984  822<985 
Early development of descending pathways from the brain stem to the spinal cord in Xenopus laevis
    "The observations demonstrate that already very early in development reticulospinal fibers and, somewhat later, Mauthner cell axons and vestibulospinal fibers innervate the spinal cord."
    See:   Reticulospinal Transmission  for link to full Abstract and Related citations.   


1984  815<984 
gamma-Aminobutyric acid and glycine activate Cl- channels having different characteristics in CNS neurones
    "These observations indicate that the glycine and GABA receptors are coupled to separate Cl- channels having different characteristics."  
    See:  GABA/Glycine Inhibition  for full Abstract and Related citations.   


1986  766<985 
A spinal projection of 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons in the lamprey brainstem; evidence from combined retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry. 
    "These findings suggest that in addition to the well-described local intraspinal 5-HT system, there is also, as in higher vertebrates, a descending 5-HT projection from the brainstem which extends at least 20 segments into the spinal cord."  
    See:  Reticulospinal Transmission   for full Abstract and Related citations.  


1987   757<985 
Efficiency of electrical transmission in reticulomotoneuronal synapses of lamprey spinal cord.   
    "The suggestion is made that the electrical transmission is involved in functioning of the lamprey nervous system. Its stability and efficiency are likely to ensure functional connection between the brain and spinal cord under such unfavourable conditions when the chemical transmission does not operate and when the ability for locomotion would be prerequisite for the individual to survive."  
    See:  Lamprey Neurotransmitters  for full Abstract and Related citations.   


1987  751<985   
Reticulospinal neurones activate excitatory amino acid receptors.     
    "Thus, fast-conducting reticulospinal neurones appear to release an excitatory amino acid acting at both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors."  
    See:  Lamprey Neurotransmitters  for full Abstract and Related citations.    

       

1988  733<985 
Projections of the olfactory bulb and nervus terminalis in the silver lamprey. 
    " A homologue of the medial olfactory tract in gnathostomes projects to the ipsilateral septal nucleus, preoptic area and, possibly, the rostral striatum.  
    A homologue of the lateral olfactory tract projects to the ipsilateral lateral pallium, dorsal pallium and, possibly, the medial pallium, as well as to the posterior diencephalon." 
    See:  Olfactory Bulb   for full Abstract and Related citations.    


1988  717<985 
Excitatory amino acid-evoked membrane currents and excitatory synaptic transmission in lamprey reticulospinal neurons. 
    "Application of glutamate evoked depolarizations associated with a decrease in input resistance.", but I think the experimental substances were bath-applied and therefore neuromodulators and not neurotransmitters.   
    See:  Lamprey Neurotransmitters  for full Abstract and Related citations.  


1988  708<985 
Brainstem command systems for locomotion in the lamprey: localization of descending pathways in the spinal cord.
    "The data indicate that the lateral spinal tracts contain a significant part of the descending command pathway for locomotion." 
    See:  Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys  for full Abstract and Related citations.  


1988  706<985
Reticulospinal neurons in lamprey: transmitters, synaptic interactions and their role during locomotion
    "The mesencephalic and rhombencephalic reticular formation in lamprey have been shown to contain several classes of descending neurons with different morphologies and putative neurotransmitters.   "  
    See: Reticulospinal Transmission for 28-page PDF with figures.   


1989  698<984 
Mechanisms underlying the serotonergic modulation of the spinal circuitry for locomotion in lamprey
    "The central nervous system of the lamprey contains serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurones both in the spinal cord and in the brainstem." 
    See:   Lamprey Locomotion  for full Abstract and Related citations.  


1989   694<984 
Central projections of the pineal complex in the silver lamprey Ichthyomyzon unicuspis.
    " The pineal tract courses caudally along the left side of the habenular commissure, and a few fibers penetrate the brain through the caudalmost portion of this commissure. Most of the fibers, however, continue caudally and enter the brain through the posterior commissure."  
    See:  Pineal Gland


1989    692<984 
Origins of the descending spinal projections in petromyzontid and myxinoid agnathans.  
    "In lampreys, the majority of HRP-labeled cells were located along the length of the brainstem reticular formation in the inferior, middle, and superior reticular nuclei of the medulla, mesencephalic tegmentum, and nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus."   
    See:  Reticulospinal Transmission  for full Abstract and Related citations.  


1989  691<984 
Further evidence for excitatory amino acid transmission in lamprey reticulospinal neurons: selective retrograde labeling with (3H)D-aspartate.   
    "The (3H)D-aspartate labeling correlates with previous electrophysiological studies showing that lamprey reticulospinal neurons utilize excitatory amino acid transmission."  
    See:  Lamprey Neurotransmitters  for full Abstract and Related citations. 


1989  689<984 
Phasic modulation of reticulospinal neurones during fictive locomotion and other types of spinal motor activity in lamprey
    " Many neurones in the posterior rhombencephalic reticular nucleus showed modulation in phase with ipsilateral motoneurones during fictive swimming. Such oscillations were observed in both fast-conducting neurones, located mainly in the medial part of the nucleus, and slower conducting cells with a more lateral distribution."  
    See:  Activity of Reticulospinal Neurons During Locomotion  for full Abstract and Related citations.   


1989  678<984 
Monosynaptic excitatory amino acid transmission from the posterior rhombencephalic reticular nucleus to spinal neurons involved in the control of locomotion in Lamprey 
    "Intracellular stimulation of single PRRN neurons produced monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in simultaneously recorded motoneurons and spinal premotor interneurons of both the excitatory and inhibitory type."    
    See:  Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys  for full Abstract and Related citations.  


1989   
598<1214 
Afferent and efferent projections of the VIIIth cranial nerve in the lamprey Lampetra japonica.  
    From:  Cerebellar Efferent Pathways 


1989    595<1214   
Origins of the descending spinal projections in petromyzontid and myxinoid agnathans. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2925902  
    From:  Cerebellar Efferent Pathways 


1990 675<985
Cellular network underlying locomotion as revealed in a lower vertebrate model: transmitters, membrane properties, circuitry, and simulation
    "In this paper, we deal with the motor system used for ambulation. Locomotion is a universal pattern of behavior generated by a family of different neural control systems: (1) generation of the propulsion (rhythmic limb or trunk movements); (2) visuomotor coordination adapting the movements to the environment..."  
    See:   Lamprey Locomotion  for Google Extract and Related citations.  


1990    667<985 
Three types of GABA-immunoreactive cells in the lamprey spinal cord. 
    "Three morphologically distinct types of GABA-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) cell bodies were observed, multipolar neurons in the lateral grey cell column, apparently bipolar cells in the ventral aspect of the dorsal horn, and small liquor-contacting cells surrounding the central canal."  
    See:  Lamprey GABA   for full Abstract and Related citations. 


1990    576<1214 
Organization of the primary projections of the lateral line nerves in the lamprey Lampetra japonica.   
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2358517   
   
    From:  Cerebellar Efferent Pathways 


1991   642<985
Putative GABAergic input to axons of spinal interneurons and primary sensory neurons in the lamprey spinal cord as shown by intracellular Lucifer yellow and GABA immunohistochemistry.
    "GABAergic phasic modulation of the membrane potential occurs in spinal interneurons during fictive locomotion in lamprey presumably indicating a presynaptic inhibition."
    See:  Lamprey GABA   for full Abstract and Related citations. 


1991 641<985
5-Hydroxytryptamine depresses reticulospinal excitatory postsynaptic potentials in motoneurons of the lamprey.
    "Application of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) to the lamprey spinal cord in vitro reversibly depressed the chemical component of excitatory post-synaptic potentials recorded intracellularly in motoneurons and evoked by stimulation of single reticulospinal Müller cells."  
    See:  Lamprey Serotonin  for full Abstract and Related citations. 


1992    627<985 
The role of heterarchical control in the evolution of central pattern generators.
     "The acceptance of the concept of central pattern generators (CPGs) led to the perception that descending inputs initiate stereotyped movements, such as locomotion, but play relatively minor roles after the movement begins."  
    See:  Central Pattern Generators  for full Abstract and Related citations.   


1992    613<985 
The serotoninergic system of the brain of the lamprey  
    "Twenty-three distinct groups of 5HT neuronal somata were identified from diencephalic to rhombencephalic levels in the brain."  
    See:  Lamprey Serotonin  for full Abstract and Related citations. 


1994   561<985
Role of excitatory amino acids in brainstem activation of spinal locomotor networks in larval lamprey.
    "An in vitro brain/spinal cord preparation from larval lamprey was used to determine the role of excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors in the descending activation of spinal locomotor networks     See:  Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys  for Abstract and Related citations. 


1994   559<985 
5-HT innervation of reticulospinal neurons and other brainstem structures in lamprey.   
    "These findings suggest that, as in the spinal cord, motor behavior controlled by reticulospinal neurons may be subject to a serotoninergic modulation."  
    See:  Lamprey Neurotransmitters  for full Abstract and Related citations.    

1994   551<985 
Afferent and efferent connections of the habenula in the larval sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus L.): an experimental study. 
     "The combined results of these experiments showed that the pattern of habenular connections is very simple. Most afferents appear to originate from the lobus subhippocampalis and neighboring area, whereas the only efferents found coursed in the fasciculus retroflexus to the neuropil of the nucleus interpeduncularis."  
     See:  Habenula  . 


1994 540<985
Rostro-caudal distribution of reticulospinal projections from different brainstem nuclei in the lamprey. 
    "All recorded mesencephalic RS neurones projected to the caudal tip of the spinal cord. Of the rhombencephalic RS neurones, 26% of the recorded neurones did not reach the caudalmost fourth of the spinal cord and this proportion varied between the anterior (18%), middle (17%) and posterior (36%) rhombencephalic reticular nuclei."
    See:   Reticulospinal Transmission   for full Abstract and Related citations.    


1995    527<985 
Neural networks that co-ordinate locomotion and body orientation in lamprey.    
    "The cycle-to-cycle pattern generation of these networks is produced by interacting glutamatergic and glycinergic neurones, with NMDA receptor-channels playing an important role at lower rates of locomotion."  
    See:  Lamprey Locomotion   for full Abstract and Related citations.   


1996   513<985
Neural networks for vertebrate locomotion     
    " Under resting conditions, the basal ganglia continuously inhibit the brain’s sundry motor centers so that no movements occur. But when the active inhibition is released, coordinated motions may begin. "
    See:   GABA/Glycine Inhibition  for full length paper and Related citations.       


1996 504<985
Neurons, networks, and motor behavior
    This is an introduction to "The International Symposium on Neurons, Networks, and Motor Behavior held in Tucson, Arizona (November 8–11, 1995)". 
    See:  Central Pattern Generators  for an extended summary, Related citations and Cited by's. 


1996 502<985
A mesencephalic relay for visual inputs to reticulospinal neurones in lampreys.
    "Visual stimuli elicit motor responses in lampreys. These responses rely, in part, on the activation of reticulospinal (RS) neurones which constitute the main descending pathway in these early vertebrates.
     Please see:  Mesencephalic Locomotor Region    for full Abstract and Related citations .


1996 498<985
Interaction between the caudal brainstem and the lamprey central pattern generator for locomotion.
    "The locomotion that is exhibited by the combined brainstem-spinal cord preparation is extremely variable. This is in striking contrast to the variability of the locomotor output pharmacologically induced in the spinal cord alone."
    See:  Central Pattern Generators  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's. 


1997  492<985 
Afferent and efferent connections of the lateral and medial pallia of the silver lamprey.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8980849  
    "... the lateral pallium ... receives bilateral inputs from the olfactory bulbs, dorsomedial telencephalic neuropil, and the habenular nuclei, and ipsilateral inputs from the septum, preoptic area, medial pallium, thalamus, and, possibly, the striatum."       
    "
The descending bundle terminates bilaterally in thalamic and hypothalamic areas and in the pretectum and optic tectum."      See:  Pallium

    See: Pallium  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's. 


1997   474<985   
Organization of the lamprey striatum - transmitters and projections.
     "Cells immunoreactive for GABA and substance P (SP), and positive for acetylcholinesterase, are present in the lamprey striatum. Immunoreactive (ir) fibers were detected by antisera raised against SP, dopamine, enkephalin and serotonin."      
     "These results, together with previous findings of histaminergic and neurotensin projections, suggest that the lamprey striatum and its inputs with regard to neurotransmitters/modulators are very similar to those of modem amniotes, including primates, and are thus conserved to a high degree."    
    See:   Lamprey Neurotransmitters   for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.  


1997  471<985   
Role of sensory-evoked NMDA plateau potentials in the initiation of locomotion.   
    "Thus, the activation of NMDA receptors mediates a switch from sensory-reception mode to a motor command mode in RS neurons."   
    See:  Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's. 


1997    469<985 
Diencephalic projection to reticulospinal neurons involved in the initiation of locomotion in adult lampreys Lampetra fluviatilis.   
    "Extracellular stimulation of the ventral thalamus elicited monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), polysynaptic EPSPs, and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in reticulospinal neurons in the posterior (prrn) and middle (mrrn) rhombencephalic reticular nuclei."  
    "The ventral thalamus, therefore, receives inputs from several different regions in the brain and controls the level of excitability in reticulospinal neurons."  
    See:  Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's. 


1998    453<985
Intrinsic function of a neuronal network - a vertebrate central pattern generator.
    "Forebrain and brainstem cell populations initiate locomotor activity via reticulospinal fibers activating a spinal network comprised of glutamatergic and glycinergic interneurons.."  
    See:  Central Pattern Generators  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.   


1998 446<984
Diencephalic and mesencephalic projections to rhombencephalic reticular nuclei in lampreys.
    "The interneurones relaying afferent vestibular, trigeminal, lateral line, cutaneous and proprioceptive inputs are localized in the rhombencephalic region of the lamprey brainstem, unlike the visual inputs that are relayed in the mesencephalic region." 
    See  Mesencephalic Locomotor Region   for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.


1998    444<985 
Electrophysiological and neuropharmacological study of tectoreticular pathways in lampreys.
    "Tectoreticular (TR) inputs were transmitted to reticular cells through monosynaptic and polysynaptic contacts. The synaptic transmission involved excitatory amino acids, acting through AMPA and NMDA receptors, while the inhibition was glycinergic."  
    See   Locomotion Sequence   for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.


1999  434<985 
Afferent and efferent connections of the parapineal organ in lampreys: a tract tracing and immunocytochemical study.
    "The lamprey parapineal organ consists of a vesicle and a ganglion that are connected to the left habenula. Labeling experiments included the application of DiI to the parapineal organ, left and right fasciculus retroflexus, left habenula, and the left pretectal region." 
    "These results indicate that the parapineal connections are completely different from those of the pineal organ. The possible homology between parapineal organs of vertebrates is discussed."  
   See:  Parapineal  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.  


1998 431<985
Vertebrate locomotion--a lamprey perspective.
    "Neuropeptides target different cellular and synaptic mechanisms and cause long-lasting changes
 (> 24h) in network function."
   See:  Lamprey Locomotion  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's. 
    

1999    430<985 
Cholinergic and GABAergic neuronal elements in the pineal organ of lampreys, and tract-tracing observations of differential connections of pinealofugal neurons.  
     "These results indicate that the two morphological types of afferent pineal neuron have different projections."  
See:  Pineal Gland  for full Abstract and Related citations.  


1999   405<985 
On the cellular bases of vertebrate locomotion.
    No Abstract available, but 
   See:   Chordate Locomotion  for  Related citations and Cited by's.  


1999 404<985
The roles of spinal interneurons and motoneurons in the lamprey locomotor network.
    "... the properties of the spinal neurons have been shown to change during swimming activity but relatively little is known about how these changes occur or the effects that these changes have upon the activities of the network."  
   See:  Lamprey Locomotion  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.        


2000   402<985   
Activity of reticulospinal neurons during locomotion in the freely behaving lamprey.  
    "In conclusion, different aspects of locomotor activity-initiation and termination, vigor of locomotion, steering and equilibrium control-are well reflected in the mass activity of the larger RS neurons."      
    See:  Activity of Reticulospinal Neurons During Locomotion  for full Abstract, Free full text, Related citations and Cited by's.  


2000    383<985 
Stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region elicits controlled swimming in semi-intact lampreys.
    "Taken together, the present results indicate that, as higher vertebrates, lampreys possess a specific mesencephalic region that controls locomotion, and the effects onto the spinal cord are relayed by brainstem RS neurons."  
   See:  Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.          
  

2000    377<985 
The intrinsic function of a motor system--from ion channels to networks and behavior.
    "This experimental model is bridging the gap between the molecular and cellular level to the network and behavioral level."
   See:  Lamprey Locomotion  for full-length PDF, Abstract and Related citations.         


2001    371<985
Origin and early evolution of the vertebrates: new insights from advances in molecular biology, anatomy, and palaeontology.
    "Recent advances in molecular biology and microanatomy have supported homologies of body parts between vertebrates and extant invertebrate chordates, thus providing insights into the body plan of the proximate ancestor of the vertebrates."
   See: Timeline of Evolution  for full-length Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.         


2001    362<985 
Ion channels of importance for the locomotor pattern generation in the lamprey brainstem-spinal cord.
    "The network consists of excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory glycinergic interneurones with known connectivity."    
   See:  Spinal Locomotor Generator  for full-length Abstract, full length article with active links and Related citations.     


2003    308<985 
Nicotinic activation of reticulospinal cells involved in the control of swimming in lampreys.   
    "Altogether, the results support the hypothesis that cholinergic inputs from the MLR to reticulospinal cells play a substantial role in the initiation and the control of locomotion."    
   See:  Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys  for full-length Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.      


2003    293<985 
Comparison of the motor effects of individual vestibulo- and reticulospinal neurons on dorsal and ventral myotomes in lamprey.
    "In the lamprey (a lower vertebrate), motor commands from the brain to the spinal cord are transmitted through the reticulospinal (RS) and vestibulospinal (VS) pathways."   
    "The results indicate that VS neurons are able to elicit a flexion of the rostral part of the body and to turn the head in different planes without affecting more caudal parts. By contrast, larger RS neurons can elicit head movement only together with movement of a considerable part of the body and thus seem to be responsible for formation of gross motor synergies."    
   See:  Reticulospinal Transmission   for Abstract, full-length article and Related citations.     


2005    259<985 
Evolution of the brain developmental plan: Insights from agnathans.
    "In this review, we discuss recent data from the agnathan lamprey (jawless vertebrate) together with available information from amphioxus and speculate on the sequence of changes during chordate evolution."    
   See: Timeline of Evolution  for Abstract, full-length article and Related citations.   


2005    243<985 
Activity of individual reticulospinal neurons during different forms of locomotion in the lamprey
    "The goal of the present experiments was to characterize the activity of individual RS neurons during swimming and during crawling in a U-shaped tunnel."
   See:  Activity of Reticulospinal Neurons During Locomotion  for full-length Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.    

 
2007    219<985 
Afferent connections of the optic tectum in lampreys: an experimental study. 
    "These results demonstrate a complex pattern of connections in the lamprey OT, most of which have been reported in other vertebrates. Hence, the lamprey OT receives a large number of nonvisual afferents from all major brain areas, and so is involved in information processing from different somatic sensory modalities."   
    See: Tectum  for full-length Abstract and Related citations. 


2006    218<985 
Afferents of the lamprey optic tectum with special reference to the GABA input: combined tracing and immunohistochemical study. 
    "On the basis of these double-labelling experiments, it was shown that the optic tectum receives a GABAergic input from the caudoventral part of the medial pallium, the dorsal and ventral thalamus, the nucleus of M5, and the torus semicircularis. The afferent input to the optic tectum in the lamprey brain is similar to that described for other vertebrate species, which is of particular interest considering its position in phylogeny."   
   See:  Lamprey GABA  for full-length Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.    

2007    212<985 
Descending GABAergic projections to the mesencephalic locomotor region in the lamprey Petromyzon marinus.  
    "These results suggest that the GABAergic projections to the MLR modulate the activity of MLR neurons, which would be inhibited by GABA at rest."  
   See: GABA/Glycine Inhibition for full-length Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.   
Also see 201<985, below, which had some of the same authors.  This suggestion is very important to my understanding of behavior.  I must come back to this.  


2007    208<985 
Tectal control of locomotion, steering, and eye movements in lamprey.  
    "These results show that tectum can provide integrated motor responses of eye, body orientation, and locomotion of the type that would be required in goal-directed locomotion."  
    See:  Lamprey Locomotion


2007  207<985 
Movements and muscle activity initiated by brain locomotor areas in semi-intact preparations from larval lamprey.  
    "The present study is the first to demonstrate in the lamprey that stimulation in higher-order locomotor areas (RLR, VMD, DLM) or reticular nuclei initiates and sustains symmetrical, well-coordinated locomotor movements and muscle activity. "  
    See:   Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys  for full Abstract, free full text, Related citations and Cited by's.   

2007    201<985 
GABA distribution in lamprey is phylogenetically conserved.
    "These results suggest that the GABAergic projections to the MLR modulate the activity of MLR neurons, which would be inhibited by GABA at rest."  
    See:  Lamprey GABA   for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.  
Also see:  212<985, above, which had some of the same authors .  This suggestion is very important to my understanding of behavior.  I must come back to this.     

2008    189<985 
Initiation of locomotion in lampreys.   
    "One important question relates to sources of inputs to the MLR. We found that substance P excites the MLR, whereas GABA inputs tonically maintain the MLR inhibited and removal of this inhibition initiates locomotion."  
    See:  Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.    Also see: 201<985 and 212<985, above. 


2008    188<985
Neural bases of goal-directed locomotion in vertebrates--an overview   
    "The different neural control systems involved in goal-directed vertebrate locomotion are reviewed. They include not only the central pattern generator networks in the spinal cord that generate the basic locomotor synergy and the brainstem command systems for locomotion but also the control systems for steering and control of body orientation (posture) and finally the neural structures responsible for determining which motor programs should be turned on in a given instant."  
   See:  Bilateria Locomotion   for full-length PDF, Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's  


2008    171<985 
Forebrain dopamine depletion impairs motor behavior in lamprey.    
    "The role of the dopamine innervation of the striatum thus appears to be conserved throughout vertebrate evolution."  
See:  Lamprey Neurotransmitters  for full-length Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's. 


2008    166<985 
Diencephalic locomotor region in the lamprey--afferents and efferent control. 
    "These findings suggest that GABAergic projections provide tonic inhibition that once turned off can release locomotion."  
    See:  GABA/Glycine Inhibition  for full Abstract, Related citations, Cited by's and Free Full Text   


2008    165<985 
Development and organization of the descending serotonergic brainstem-spinal projections in the sea lamprey.   
    "The early development of the brainstem serotonergic projections to the spinal cord appears to be a conserved trait in all vertebrates studied."  
    See:  Lamprey Neurotransmitters  for full-length Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.     


2008    158<985 
Descending brain-spinal cord projections in a primitive vertebrate, the lamprey: cerebrospinal fluid-contacting and dopaminergic neurons.  
    "The results show that descending systems afferent to the spinal cord in lampreys are more varied than previously reported, and reveal a descending projection from CSF-c cells, which is unknown in vertebrates. The present results also reveal the existence of large differences between agnathans and gnathostomes in the organization of the dopaminergic cells that project to the spinal cord."     
    See:   Reticulospinal Transmission  for full Abstract and Reviews.  


2010    119<986 
A parallel cholinergic brainstem pathway for enhancing locomotor drive
    "The brainstem locomotor system is believed to be organized serially from the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) to reticulospinal neurons, which in turn project to locomotor neurons in the spinal cord. We identified brainstem muscarinoceptive neurons in lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) that received parallel inputs from the MLR and projected back to reticulospinal cells to amplify and extend the duration of locomotor output.  
    See:  Lamprey Neurotransmitters  for Free Full Text, Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.     


2010    117<986 
Descending brain neurons in larval lamprey: spinal projection patterns and initiation of locomotion.    
    " In whole animals and in vitro brain/spinal cord preparations, brain-initiated spinal locomotor activity was present when the lateral or intermediate spinal tracts were spared but usually was abolished when the medial tracts were spared."  
    "Most neurons that projected in the lateral/intermediate spinal tracts were in the ARRN, MRRN, and PRRN."
    See:  Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys  for  Free PMC Article , Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.     


2011    108<986
Localization, pharmacology, and organization of brain locomotor areas in larval lamprey.
    "Thus, the RLR locomotor area does not appear able to initiate spinal locomotor activity by neural circuits confined entirely within the rhombencephalon but requires more rostral neural centers, such as those in the VMD and DLM"  
    See:  Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys  for  Free PMC Article , Abstract and Related citations.     


2010    108<987 
Beyond connectivity of locomotor circuitry-ionic and modulatory mechanisms 
    "
Discrete neural networks in the central nervous system generate the repertoire of motor behavior necessary for animal survival. ... Understanding the logic of the neuronal and synaptic processing within the locomotor network will provide information about not only their normal operation but also how they react to disruption such as injuries or trauma."    
    See:  Lamprey Locomotion for full Abstract and Related citations.   

 

2010    103<986
A novel neural substrate for the transformation of olfactory inputs into motor output. 
    "
The olfactory input was relayed in the medial part of the olfactory bulb, in the posterior tuberculum, in the mesencephalic locomotor region, to finally reach reticulospinal cells in the hindbrain."  
    See:   Initiation of Locomotion in Lampreys  for full-length Abstract, Related citations Cited by's., and Free PMC Article  .     
    

2011    96<985 
Chapter 4--supraspinal control of locomotion: the mesencephalic locomotor region. 
    "Glutamatergic and cholinergic monosynaptic inputs from the MLR are responsible for excitation of reticulospinal (RS) cells that in turn activate the spinal locomotor networks."     
    See:  Mesencephalic Locomotor Region for full-length Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's.    


2011    89<986 
Striatal cellular properties conserved from lampreys to mammals.
    "
The striatum of the lamprey, the first vertebrate group to appear in evolution, shows striking similarities to that of mammals with respect to histochemical markers, afferent and efferent projections and the effect of dopamine depletion, which leads to hypokinetic motor symptoms.   

    See: Striatum  for  Free PMC Article , Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's. 


2011    87<987 
Evolutionary conservation of the basal ganglia as a common vertebrate mechanism for action selection.  
    "
These results show that the detailed basal ganglia circuitry is present in the phylogenetically oldest vertebrates and has been conserved, most likely as a mechanism for action selection used by all vertebrates, for over 560 million years."  
    See:  Basal Ganglia for Abstract, Related citations, Cited by's and Free full text.   


2011    85<986 
Basal ganglia: insights into origins from lamprey brains.   
    "
basal ganglia circuitry, with an output that acts tonically on midbrain and brainstem motor centers"  
    See: Basal Ganglia  for Abstract, Related citations and Free Article  . 


2011    83<986
Inhibitory descending rhombencephalic projections in larval sea lamprey.  
    "
Glycine-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons that project to the spinal cord were observed in three rhombencephalic reticular nuclei: anterior, middle and posterior. Spinal-projecting GABA-ir neurons were observed in the anterior and posterior reticular nuclei."  
    See:  GABA/Glycine Inhibition  for full Abstract and Related citations. 


2012  78<986   
Evolutionary conservation of the habenular nuclei and their circuitry controlling the dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HT) systems.
    " Our results indicate that the habenular nuclei provide a common vertebrate circuitry to adapt behavior in response to rewards, stress, and other motivating factors."  
    See:  Habenula   for full Abstract, Related citations, Cited by's and   Free PMC Article .   


2012    75<986 
Evolution of the basal ganglia: dual-output pathways conserved throughout vertebrate phylogeny.  
    "GABAergic SNr projection neurons are tonically active and project to the thalamus and brainstem motor areas. "  
     See:  Basal Ganglia  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's .   


2012    72<986 
The dopamine D2 receptor gene in lamprey, its expression in the striatum and cellular effects of D2 receptor activation.  
    "These results together with our previous published data further emphasize the high degree of conservation of the basal ganglia ... and its role as a basic mechanism for action selection in all vertebrates."     
    See:  Lamprey Neurotransmitters   for full Abstract, Related citations, Cited by's
and
Free PMC Article .  


2013    57<986 
The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate basal ganglia and its role in action selection.  
    "The output of the basal ganglia consists of tonically active GABAergic neurones, which target brainstem motor centres responsible for different patterns of behaviour, such as eye and locomotor movements, posture, and feeding. A prerequisite for activating or releasing a motor programme is that this GABAergic inhibition is temporarily reduced."  
     See:  Basal Ganglia for full Abstract, Related citations, Cited by's and Free PMC Article  .  


2013  54<986 
The multifunctional mesencephalic locomotor region. 
    "recent studies in lampreys have revealed that the MLR is more complex than a simple relay in a serial descending pathway activating the spinal locomotor circuits"  
    See:  Mesencephalic Locomotor Region  for full Abstract, Related citations and Cited by's. 

 
2013   48<986  
Dopamine differentially modulates the excitability of striatal neurons of the direct and indirect pathways in lamprey. 
    "Our results suggest that the segregated expression of the D1 and D2 receptors in the direct and indirect striatal projection neurons has been conserved across the vertebrate phylum."  
    See:  Lamprey Neurotransmitters for Abstract, Related citations, Cited by's and Free Final Version. 


2013    40<986 
Forebrain dopamine neurons project down to a brainstem region controlling locomotion.  
    "It appears that this descending dopaminergic pathway has a modulatory role on MLR cells that are known to receive glutamatergic projections and promotes locomotor output."  
    See:  Lamprey Neurotransmitters for Abstract, Related citations, Cited by's and Free PMC Article


2013    37<986 
Independent circuits in the basal ganglia for the evaluation and selection of actions.  
    " Our results show that a distinct reward-evaluation circuit exists within the basal ganglia, in parallel to the direct and indirect pathways, which select actions."  
    See:  Basal Ganglia  for Abstract, Related citations, Cited by's and  Free PMC Article  .  


2014    20<986
Evolutionarily conserved organization of the dopaminergic system in lamprey: SNc/VTA afferent and efferent connectivity and D2 receptor expression.
     "The intrinsic organization and function of the lamprey basal ganglia is highly conserved. For instance, the direct and indirect pathways are modulated through dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in lamprey and in mammals."  
    See:  Lamprey Neurotransmitters for Abstract and Related citations

2014 18<986
Dopamine: a parallel pathway for the modulation of spinal locomotor networks.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24982614
     "The spinal cord contains networks of neurons that can produce locomotor patterns. To readily respond to environmental conditions, these networks must be flexible yet at the same time robust. Neuromodulators play a key role in contributing to network flexibility in a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate networks."
    See:  Lamprey Neurotransmitters for Abstract, Related citations, Cited by's and Free PMC Article


2014  
The lamprey blueprint of the mammalian nervous system.  
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25194205   
"Abstract
    The basic features of the vertebrate nervous system are conserved throughout vertebrate phylogeny to a much higher degree than previously thought. In this mini-review, we show that not only the organization of the different motor programs underlying eye, orienting, locomotor, and respiratory movements are similarly organized, but also that the basic structure of the forebrain engaged in the control of movement is conserved.  
    In the lamprey, which diverged already 560 million years ago from the vertebrate line of evolution leading up to primates, the basic components of the basal ganglia are similar to those of mammals in considerable detail. Moreover, the properties of the synaptic input are similar as well as transmitters/peptides in the direct and indirect pathway throughout the basal ganglia. The membrane properties of the striatal projection neurons with D1 and D2 receptors, respectively, are also similar, as are those of the pallidal output neurons.  
    Our evidence suggests that the basal ganglia can be subdivided into functional modules controlling different motor programs, like locomotion and eye movements. What has happened during evolution is that the number of modules has increased in parallel with a progressively more complex behavioral repertoire.  
    For value-based decisions, the circuitry through the lateral habenulae to the dopaminergic modulator neurons is also conserved, as well as the relay inhibitory interneurons involved. The habenular input is from a pallidal glutamatergic nucleus in lamprey as well as mammals, and this nucleus in turn receives input from the striosomal compartment within striatum and also from pallium (cortex in mammals). "  
    2 Cited by's


2014   14<349 
Laterally projecting cerebrospinal fluid-contacting cells in the lamprey spinal cord are of two distinct types.


Searching PubMed for "reticulospinal transmission" located 150 references, many of which focused on the lamprey: 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=reticulospinal+transmission   
    See also:   Reticulospinal Transmission    . 

1974 142<150
Synaptic interactions of reticulospinal neurons and nerve cells in the spinal cord of the sea lamprey.  
    "Morphologically mixed synapses with both chemical and electrical junctions were observed ...".
    See also:   Reticulospinal Transmission    . 


1974    141<150
Characteristics of fast and slow corticobulbar fibre projections to reticulospinal neurones. - PubMed
No PubMed Abstract:
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/162840
but there is a Google Abstract   
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006899375910033     
See:  Extrapyramidal System  . 



Nieuwenhuys R.  (1977).  The Brain of the Lamprey in a Comparative Perspective.  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.  Sept. 30, 299:97-145.  No
PubMed abstract available.  I have photocopy. 



CotA Lamprey Nervous System 
with picture and
partially trimmed addition 
Was 150713 - 1004, then 150714 - 0959 which got filed as HTML and therefore didn't work,
    now 150714 - 1017 which will hopefully be filed as a text document. 
It wasn't, so now I tried to file it on the desktop as 150714 - 1037, but I still couldn't file it as text.   
Copying it into Wordpad allowed me to file as a Rich-Text document, but the most links were inactive and the picture was hidden.  . 
However, copying to OpenOffice seems to have left all the links active and the picture intact. 
Was Version Number 467,  478, 481 and now 485 

Lamprey Nervous System HTML 150714 - 1602

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