Mitochondrial genes as sites of primary action of steroid hormones (PubMed)
"Steroid and thyroid hormones act on nuclear gene transcription by activating protein receptors, which in turn bind to hormone response elements (HREs). Among these cell-specific processes regulated by steroid receptors is energy metabolism through increased synthesis of respiratory enzymes."
"The human and rodent mitochondrial genomes contain nucleotide sequences similar both to type I and type II HREs. ... Glucocorticoid receptors (GR) rapidly translocate from the cytoplasm into mitochondria after administration of glucocorticoids."
Steroid and thyroid hormone receptors in mitochondria (PubMed)
"Receptors for glucocorticoids, estrogens, androgens, and thyroid hormones have been detected in mitochondria of various cell types ...
Steroid and thyroid hormones regulate energy production, inducing nuclear and mitochondrial OXPHOS genes by way of cognate receptors. In addition to the action of the nuclearly localized receptors on nuclear OXPHOS gene transcription, a parallel direct action of the mitochondrially localized receptors on mitochondrial transcription has been demonstrated. The coordination of transcription activation in nuclei and mitochondria by the respective receptors is in part realized by their binding to common trans acting elements in the two genomes."