Primate Serotonin

Cross references:     Serotonin References   




INITIAL SUMMARIES
OF THE REFERENCES






Excessive mortality in young free-ranging ...
1996    
    "These findings suggest that low Cerebrospinal Fluid  5-HIAA concentrations quantified early in life is a powerful biological predictor of future excessive aggression, risk taking, and premature death among nonhuman primate males."  


Low central nervous ... 1997   
    "
Primates with low CNS serotonergic activity exhibit behaviors indicative of impaired impulse control, unrestrained aggression, social isolation, and low social Dominance."  

Adolescent impulsivity ... 2004 
    "Males that were high in Impulsivity as adolescents, and low in 5-HIAA prior to introduction were more likely to achieve stable alpha male status 1 year following introduction. "  

Serotonergic Influences ... 2007
    "Low concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA (Cerebrospinal Fluid  5-HIAA) are associated with negative life-history patterns characterized by social instability and excessive aggression, and positive life-history patterns characterized by higher  Dominance rank.



THE REFERENCES





Excessive mortality in young free-ranging male nonhuman primates with low
Cerebrospinal Fluid  5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations.   - 1996     Only abstract available online.     Library could not access PDF.   Same abstract but different links.   
from the abstract 

    "The rate of mortality was ascertained over a 4-year period after obtaining blood and cisternal Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) samples from 49 free-ranging, 2-year-old prepubertal male rhesus monkeys. Cerebrospinal fluid was assayed for 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), Norepinephrine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylgycol (MHPG), and homovanillic acid (HVA). Blood plasma was assayed for adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH), Cortisol, and Testosterone.  
    Following the sampling of body fluids, records of scars and wounds and aggressive encounters were used to rank the subjects from low to high in aggressiveness. Direct observations of aggressive behavior were collected from 27 of the subjects over a 3-month period.
"  
    "
These findings suggest that low
Cerebrospinal Fluid  5-HIAA concentrations quantified early in life is a powerful biological predictor of future excessive aggression, risk taking, and premature death among nonhuman primate males."  



Low central nervous system serotonergic activity is traitlike and correlates with impulsive behavior. A nonhuman primate model investigating genetic and environmental influences on neurotransmission.  (PubMed)  - 1997 
Also considered in
Serotonin & Dominance .     
Only abstract available online.   I got the PDF through the library.   
   
National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Poolesville, MD
  
from the abstract   
    "
We have used nonhuman primates to examine developmental and behavioral correlates of
Central Nervous System (CNS) serotonergic activity, as measured by concentrations of the Serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF). These studies show that interindividual differences in CNS serotonin turnover rate exhibit traitlike qualities and are stable across time and settings, with interindividual differences in CSF 5-HIAA concentrations showing positive correlations across repeated sampling.  
    Primates with low CNS serotonergic activity exhibit behaviors indicative of impaired impulse control, unrestrained aggression, social isolation, and low social
Dominance. Maternal and paternal genetic influences play major roles in producing low CNS serotonin functioning, beginning early in life. These genetic influences on Serotonin functioning are further influenced by early rearing experiences, particularly parental deprivation."  



Adolescent impulsivity predicts adult dominance attainment in male vervet monkeys.   - 2004  Also considered in Serotonin & Dominance
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15356854     
Only abstract available online.  I got the PDF through the library.   
   
Neuropsychiatric Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA
   
from the abstract   
    "
Thirty-six adolescent male vervets were tested for social
Impulsivity by means of the Intruder Challenge test while they were still living in their natal groups. Body weight and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) metabolites of Serotonin, Dopamine, and Norepinephrine were measured before they were introduced into new matrilineal breeding groups at age 5. Stable adult  Dominance  rank was determined at age 6, 1 year following introduction.  
    The results indicated that body weight, adolescent impulsivity, and levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (
HVA) in CSF predicted adult dominance attainment. As expected, males that were above average in body weight prior to introduction were significantly more likely to become dominant. Males that were high in Impulsivity as adolescents, and low in 5-HIAA prior to introduction were more likely to achieve stable alpha male status 1 year following introduction. "  
    "T
hese results support the idea that there are benefits of a high-risk, high-gain strategy is beneficial for adolescent and young adult male vervets. They also demonstrate that adolescent impulsivity is age-limited. Males that achieved high rank moderated their behavior as adults, and no longer scored high in impulsivity relative to their age peers.
"    


Serotonergic Influences on Life-History Outcomes in Free-Ranging Male Rhesus Macaques (BioSis)  - 2007   
Also considered in Serotonin & Dominance
Only abstract available online.  I got the PDF through the library.   
   
Research and Development, Alpha Genesis Inc, Yemassee, SC
   
from the abstract   
    "Several studies have demonstrated that nonhuman primate males with low Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) levels of the Serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) exhibit antisocial behavior patterns. Included in these deleterious patterns are impulse control deficits (Impulsivity) associated with violence and premature death.  
    No studies to date have longitudinally studied the long-term outcome of young subjects with low CSF 5-HIAA (
Cerebrospinal Fluid  5-HIAA) concentrations as they mature into adults. In this study we examined longitudinal relations among serotonergic and Dopaminergic functioning, as reflected in CSF metabolite concentrations, aggression, age at emigration, Dominance rank, and mortality in free-ranging rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) males.    Our results indicate long-term consistency of individual differences in levels of 5-HIAA in CSF in the subject population from the juvenile period of development through adulthood.  
    We found a significant negative correlation between 5-HIAA concentrations measured in juveniles and rates of high-intensity aggression in the same animals as adults. Further, CSF 5-HIAA concentrations were lower in juveniles that died than in animals that survived.  
    For the young animals that migrated there was a positive correlation between CSF 5-HIAA concentration and age at emigration, whereas for the animals that remained in their troop until later in sexual maturity there was a negative correlation between CSF 5-HIAA concentration and age of emigration.  
    After animals emigrated to a new troop, social dominance rank in the new troop was positively correlated with early family social dominance rank, but inversely correlated with juvenile CSF 5-HIAA concentrations.  
    Taken together, our findings suggest that males with low central serotonin levels early in life delay migration and show high levels of violence and premature death, but the males that survive achieve high rank.  
    These findings indicate that longitudinal measures of serotonergic and dopaminergic functioning are predictive of major life-history outcomes in nonhuman primate males. Low concentrations of CSF 5-HIAA
(Cerebrospinal Fluid  5-HIAA) are associated with negative life-history patterns characterized by social instability and excessive aggression, and positive life-history patterns characterized by higher  Dominance rank."    



 
 













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