Protochordate Hormones

Searching Google for "protochordate hormones" located 28,400 references: 
https://www.google.com/search?q=protochordate+hormones&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8   
    Surprisingly, there was no Wikipedia reference in the first 8 pages of the search.  Perhaps I should write one. 

1988    39<48  
Occurrence of melanotropin- and corticotropin-like material in the cerebral ganglion of a protochordate.


1988   
Phylogeny of the cholecystokinin/gastrin family (PubMed) 
    See:  Neuropeptides


1990   
38<48    Free Article  
Cionin: a disulfotyrosyl hybrid of cholecystokinin and gastrin from the neural ganglion of the protochordate Ciona intestinalis.


1990     37<48   
Phylogeny and ontogeny of gonadotropin-releasing hormone: comparison of guinea pig, rat, and a protochordate.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2189781    
    See:  Amphioxus Insulin
    See:  Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)        


1999     
27<48  
Immunohistochemical evidence for the presence, localization and partial coexistence of insulin, insulin-like growth factor I and relaxin in the protochordate Ciona intestinalis. 


2000   
26<48      Free PMC Article 
Mammalian and chicken I forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the gonads of a protochordate, Ciona intestinalis.  


2001   
24<48  
Induction of gamete release by gonadotropin-releasing hormone in a protochordate, Ciona intestinalis.  
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11742510  
    See:  Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) .


2002   
23<48  
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): from fish to mammalian brains.  


2003   
22<48  
Evolution of adrenal and sex steroid action in vertebrates: a ligand-based mechanism for complexity.    
    See:  Steroids


2003   
21<48  
Six novel gonadotropin-releasing hormones are encoded as triplets on each of two genes in the protochordate, Ciona intestinalis. 


2003 
20<48     Free Article 
Occurrence and neuroendocrine role of D-aspartic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid in Ciona intestinalis.  


2004   
19<48  
Evolution of GnRH ligand precursors and GnRH receptors in protochordate and vertebrate species.   


2005   
18<48  
Distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) by in situ hybridization in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis.  


2005   
17<48    Free Article   
Evolution of constrained gonadotropin-releasing hormone ligand conformation and receptor selectivity.    


2005
Endocrinology of protochordates (NRC)
http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/rp/rppdf/z04-178.pdf   
1.  This earlier link no longer works, but the former Abstract was informative, so I've left it, below: 
    "The secretion of hormones is an ancient process. Plants, bacteria, yeast, invertebrates, and vertebrates all secrete proteins that affect other cells or organisms. The earliest secreted hormones were autocrine or paracrine, before a true circulatory system evolved for widespread, rapid distribution of hormones known as endocrines. Because we know that single-celled organisms can secrete hormones, it is not surprising that almost every tissue in the body can synthesize and secrete hormones. Even nerve cells that first evolved in coelenterates are capable of secreting hormones. 
    Many of the hormones of the human endocrine system are already present in the Tunicates and Amphioxus, so it is not unreasonable to see the protochordate endocrine system as a very early, simplified version of the human endocrine system. 
    Most of the identified hormones seem to be metabolic in function: cionin, a likely ancestor of cholecytokinin (CCK), gastrin, insulin, and some components of a thyroid system. 
    In tunicates, nine distinct forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are shown to induce gamete release, even though a pituitary gland and sex steroids are lacking. 
Also, tunicates have cell surface receptors including the G-protein-coupled type, such as β-adrenergic and putative endocannabinoid." 
    Note: the article makes no mention of Cortisol. 

2.  Later link which still works. 
2005   
Endocrinology of protochordates - Canadian Journal of Zoology 
http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/z04-178?journalCode=cjz#.V1Wh0SHsoeG   
"Abstract
     Large-scale gene duplications occurred early in the vertebrate lineage after the split with protochordates. Thus, protochordate hormones and their receptors, transcription factors, and signaling pathways may be the foundation for the endocrine system in vertebrates.
    A number of hormones have been identified including cionin, a likely ancestor of cholecytokinin (CCK) and gastrin. Both insulin and insulin-like growth hormone (IGF) have been identified in separate cDNAs in a tunicate, whereas only a single insulin-like peptide was found in amphioxus. In tunicates, nine distinct forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are shown to induce gamete release, even though a pituitary gland and sex steroids are lacking. In both tunicates and amphioxus, there is evidence of some components of a thyroid system, but the lack of a sequenced genome for amphioxus has slowed progress in the structural identification of its hormones.  
    Immunocytochemistry has been used to tentatively identify a number of hormones in protochordates, but structural and functional studies are needed. For receptors, protochordates have many vertebrate homologs of nuclear receptors, such as the thyroid, retinoic acid, and retinoid X receptors. Also, tunicates have cell surface receptors including the G-protein-coupled type, such as β-adrenergic, putative endocannabinoid, cionin (CCK-like), and two GnRH receptors. Several tyrosine kinase receptors include two epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (tunicates) and an insulin/IGF receptor (amphioxus). Interestingly, neither steroid receptors nor a full complement of enzymes for synthesis of sex steroids are encoded in the Ciona genome. Tunicates appear to have some but not all of the necessary molecules to develop a vertebrate-like pituitary or complete thyroid system. "  

    Identified Hormones, Neurotransmitters or Neuromodulators:
cionin, a likely ancestor of cholecytokinin (CCK) , gastrin , insulin , insulin-like growth hormone (IGF) . 
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)  , some components of a thyroid system
many vertebrate homologs of nuclear receptors, such as the thyroid, retinoic acid, and retinoid X receptors , 
cell surface receptors including the G-protein-coupled type, such as β-adrenergic, putative endocannabinoid, cionin (CCK-like), and two GnRH receptors. Several tyrosine kinase receptors include two epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (tunicates) and an insulin/IGF receptor 
    "
Interestingly, neither steroid receptors nor a full complement of enzymes for synthesis of sex steroids are encoded in the Ciona genome. Tunicates appear to have some but not all of the necessary molecules to develop a vertebrate-like pituitary or complete thyroid system."   
    Cited by's: 
View all 16 citing articles   

    
   
2005    6. 
Endocrinology of protochordates    
    Abstract: 
http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/z04-178     
    "
Large-scale gene duplications occurred early in the vertebrate lineage after the split with protochordates. Thus, protochordate hormones and their receptors, transcription factors, and signaling pathways may be the foundation for the endocrine system in vertebrates.    
    A number of hormones have been identified including cionin, a likely ancestor of cholecytokinin (CCK) and gastrin. Both insulin and insulin-like growth hormone (IGF) have been identified in separate cDNAs in a tunicate, whereas only a single insulin-like peptide was found in amphioxus.  
    In tunicates, nine distinct forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) are shown to induce gamete release, even though a pituitary gland and sex steroids are lacking.  
    In both tunicates and amphioxus, there is evidence of some components of a thyroid system, but the lack of a sequenced genome for amphioxus has slowed progress in the structural identification of its hormones. Immunocytochemistry has been used to tentatively identify a number of hormones in protochordates, but structural and functional studies are needed.  
    For receptors, protochordates have many vertebrate homologs of nuclear receptors, such as the thyroid, retinoic acid, and retinoid X receptors. Also, tunicates have cell surface receptors including the G-protein-coupled type, such as β-adrenergic, putative endocannabinoid, cionin (CCK-like), and two GnRH receptors. Several tyrosine kinase receptors include two epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (tunicates) and an insulin/IGF receptor (amphioxus). Interestingly, neither steroid receptors nor a full complement of enzymes for synthesis of sex steroids are encoded in the Ciona genome. Tunicates appear to have some but not all of the necessary molecules to develop a vertebrate-like pituitary or complete thyroid system."   

    Identified Hormones, Neurotransmitters or Neuromodulators:
cionin, a likely ancestor of cholecytokinin (CCK) , gastrin , insulin , insulin-like growth hormone (IGF) . 
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)  , some components of a thyroid system
many vertebrate homologs of nuclear receptors, such as the thyroid, retinoic acid, and retinoid X receptors , 
cell surface receptors including the G-protein-coupled type, such as β-adrenergic, putative endocannabinoid, cionin (CCK-like), and two GnRH receptors. Several tyrosine kinase receptors include two epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (tunicates) and an insulin/IGF receptor 
    "
Interestingly, neither steroid receptors nor a full complement of enzymes for synthesis of sex steroids are encoded in the Ciona genome. Tunicates appear to have some but not all of the necessary molecules to develop a vertebrate-like pituitary or complete thyroid system."   
    Cited by's: 
View all 16 citing articles  


2006    
16<48        
Evolution of GnRH ligands and receptors in gnathostomata. 


2007   
15<48    Free PMC Article  
N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) in the nervous system of the amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum.   


2008   
14<48  
Functions of a GnRH receptor heterodimer of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis.    


2008   
13<48    Free PMC Article  
An amphioxus orthologue of the estrogen receptor that does not bind estradiol: insights into estrogen receptor evolution. 


2008     
12<48    Free Article  
A sea lamprey glycoprotein hormone receptor similar with gnathostome thyrotropin hormone receptor.   


2011   
8<48  
Peptidomic analysis of the central nervous system of the protochordate, Ciona intestinalis: homologs and prototypes of vertebrate peptides and novel peptides.   


2011   
7<48  
Expression and regulation by thyroid hormone (TH) of zebrafish IGF-I gene and amphioxus IGFl gene with implication of the origin of TH/IGF signaling pathway.
   

2012   
6<48   
Evidence for differential regulation of GnRH signaling via heterodimerization among GnRH receptor paralogs in the protochordate, Ciona intestinalis.   


2013   
4<48    Free PMC Article  
GPCR Heterodimerization in the Reproductive System: Functional Regulation and Implication for Biodiversity.


2015   
1<48  
An evolutionary scenario for gonadotrophin-inhibitory hormone in chordates.




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