Ligand-gated chloride channels are receptors for... (PubMed)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19574391?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_SingleItemSupl.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=3&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmed "Biogenic amines such as serotonin and dopamine are intercellular
signaling molecules that function widely as neurotransmitters and
We have identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis
elegans three ligand-gated chloride channels that are receptors for
biogenic amines: LGC-53 is a high-affinity dopamine receptor, LGC-55 is
a high-affinity tyramine receptor, and LGC-40 is a low-affinity
serotonin receptor that is also gated by choline and acetylcholine. LGC-55 mutants are defective in a behavior that requires endogenous
tyramine, which indicates that this ionotropic tyramine receptor
functions in tyramine signaling in vivo.
Our studies suggest that
direct activation of membrane chloride conductances is a general
mechanism of action for biogenic amines in the modulation of C. elegans
Biogenic amine (Wiki)
"Some prominent examples of biogenic amines include:
(ACh) - the first neurotransmitter identified, in 1914; involved with
Parasympathetic Nervous System but predominantly acts at the Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ)
- Histamine - a substance derived from the amino acid histidine that acts as a neurotransmitter mediating arousal and attention, as well as a pro-inflammatory signal released from mast cells in response to allergic
reactions or tissue damage. Histamine is also an important stimulant of
HCl secretion by the stomach through histamine H2 receptors.
- Tyramine - a substance that is found in many common foods, and is associated with increased blood pressure and headaches.
- Serotonin - a central nervous system neurotransmitter involved in regulating mood, sleep, appetite, and sexuality.
- The three catecholamine neurotransmitters:
- Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) - a neurotransmitter involved in sleep and wakefulness, attention, and feeding behavior, as well as a stress hormone released by the adrenal glands that regulates the sympathetic nervous system.
- Epinephrine (adrenaline) - an adrenal stress hormone, as well as a neurotransmitter present at lower levels in the brain.
- Dopamine - a neurotransmitter involved in motivation, reward, addiction, behavioral reinforcement, and coordination of bodily movement.
- Tryptamine - a monoamine alkaloid found in trace amounts in the brains of mammals, and believed to play a role as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter."