Red Nucleus Iron

Cross references:  Red Nucleus      Red Nucleus Evolution               
Heme      Globin     Myoglobin      Myoglobin Evolution  

Cerebellum
 
 
  Red Nucleus Cerebellum        Muscle Innervation     
Motor Neuron Evolution    Motor Nerve Organization      
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Muscles     Shark Muscles



Searching Google for "red nucleus color" yielded 5,180,000 claimed hits.  I scanned the first 8 pages without finding any mention of Globin or  Heme or anything else related to Myoglobin .  The few authors who mentioned the color said that it was pink when it was fresh, and it was also said to be highly vascularized and rich in iron.  The following three references are from this 8 page search.   

1.  Brain Stem - Brain Stem.pdf   
My comment
    Site down the last time I looked.   

2.  Mesencephalon - Red Nucleus flashcards  
" Red Nucleus:     High in iron = red color  
Red Nucleus Input:     Cerebellum
Red Nucleus Output:     Rubrospinal Tract "  
My comment
    Both hemoglobin and Myoglobin  contain iron.  Since iron oxide (rust) is red, one of these could be the source of the "pinkish color in fresh Brain specimens".    

3.  Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Microscopic Anatomy: Section 1 
    "Red nucleus: So-called because of a pinkish color in the fresh state owing to its high vascularity.  Links the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and spinal cord."  


So, perhaps the red nucleus is "red" in name only?   Perhaps it gets its freshly cut redness from hemoglobin.  Is there any reason to rule out Myoglobin ?  If it's myoglobin, then perhaps the red nucleus is "red" as long as it's intrinsic myoglobin is oxygenated.  I searched for "red nucleus myoglobin" to see if the red nucleus contains or includes myoglobin.  Although Google claimed 1,380,000 references, I did not find anything helpful when I looked at the first 4 pages.               



Searching Google for "red nucleus iron" yielded 5,290,000 claimed references. 

Higher iron in the red nucleus marks Parkinson's dyskinesia. - 2012 (Goog) 
    "The association of higher RN iron content with PD-related dyskinesia suggests increased iron content is involved in, or reflects, greater cerebellar compensatory capacity and thus increased likelihood of LID development."  
My comment
    No indication whether the iron is metallic or in an organic complex.     


Brain iron deposition in Parkinson's disease imaged using the PRIME magnetic resonance sequence - 2000 (Goog)   
    "Iron promotes important metabolic processes in the brain (Wrigglesworth and Baum, 1988). However, it is also associated with the production of damaging free-radicals, which may lead to neurodegeneration via lipid peroxidation.
    Brain iron is stored in the protein ferritin (Hallgren and Sourander, 1958; Griffiths et al., 1999), which is present at a high concentration within some of the subcortical nuclei, specifically the globus pallidus, substantia nigra and red nucleus (Hallgren and Sourander, 1958; Hill and Switzer, 1984; Riederer et al., 1989).  
    Additional iron accumulation, in the form of stable free radicals, has also been detected in the dopaminergic neurones of the substantia nigra in association with the pigment neuromelanin (Jellinger et al., 1992; Zecca et al., 1996; Shima et al., 1997). "  
My comments
1.  For "ferritin", see below: 

Ferritin (Wiki) 
   
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferritin       
 
"Ferritin is a ubiquitous intracellular protein that stores iron and releases it in a controlled fashion. The amount of ferritin stored reflects the amount of iron stored. The protein is produced by almost all living organisms, including algae, bacteria, higher plants, and animals. In humans, it acts as a buffer against iron deficiency and iron overload.[3]"

2.  The color of ferritin was not specified.  However, searching Google for "ferritin color" yields 2,400,000 claimed references. 

Ferritin from equine spleen Type I, saline solution | Sigma-Aldrich 
    "color  -  red to brown"  

So, it's possible that at least some of the red nucleus' redness is due to ferritin.  In order for this to be the case, ferritin's redness must fade when it dries and is exposed to air since the red nucleus is only red when it's "fresh".  There's also the problem that it is present at a high concentration within some of the subcortical nuclei, specifically the globus pallidus, see above, yet the globus pallidus is pale rather than red.     



  








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