Sea Urchin

Cross references:    Cambrian Explosion   Bilateria    Protostome  
Deuterostomes   Chordates    Hemichordates       Protochordates    
Cephalochordate     

    My overall comment

08-04-16   
I've completed the first review of the references in  Sea Urchin  .  They are heavily biased toward thyroid hormones.  I don't know if this reflects an early evolution of thyroid hormones or just an early interest in them.     



Searching Google for "sea urchin" discovered 3,860,000 references: 
https://www.google.com/search?q=sea+urchin&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8   

Sea urchin - Wikipedia 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_urchin   
    "
Sea urchins or urchins (/ˈɜːrɪnz/), archaically called sea hedgehogs,[1][2] are small, spiny, globular animals that, with their close kin, such as sand dollars, constitute the class Echinoidea of the echinoderm phylum. About 950 species of echinoids inhabit all oceans from the intertidal to 5,000 metres (16,000 ft; 2,700 fathoms) deep.[3] The shell, or "test", of sea urchins is round and spiny, typically from 3 to 10 cm (1.2 to 3.9 in) across. Common colors include black and dull shades of green, olive, brown, purple, blue, and red. Sea urchins move slowly, feeding primarily on algae. Sea otters, starfish, wolf eels, triggerfish, and other predators hunt and feed on sea urchins. Their roe is a delicacy in many cuisines. The name "urchin" is an old word for hedgehog, which sea urchins resemble."  


Tripneustes ventricosus (West Indian Sea Egg-top) and Echinometra viridis (Reef Urchin - bottom).jpg Tripneustes ventricosus and Echinometra viridis,
two species of tropical sea urchins.

Contents

   


Searching PubMed for "sea urchin" revealed 10,470 references:   
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=sea+urchin  

Searching PubMed for "sea urchin hormone" revealed 198 references: 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=sea+urchin+hormone   


1976   
182<198 
Insulin receptor sites as membrane markers during embryonic development. I. Data obtained with unfertilized and fertilized sea urchin eggs.
   

1979   
177<198      Free Article   
A low molecular weight factor from sea urchin eggs elevates sperm cyclic nucleotide concentrations and respiration rates.

1987   
164<198 
A sea urchin gene encodes a polypeptide homologous to epidermal growth factor.   

1989    155<198 
Molecular basis of signalling in the spermatozoon.    

1992   
128<198    Free PMC Article
SpCOUP-TF: a sea urchin member of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor family.   

1997   
99<198   Free PMC Article 
Effect of estrogen upon cyclic ADP ribose metabolism: beta-estradiol stimulates ADP ribosyl cyclase in rat uterus.   

1998   
90<198  
Induction of metamorphosis in the sand dollar Peronella japonica by thyroid hormones.  

1999   
82<198 
Ascidian homologs of mammalian thyroid peroxidase genes are expressed in the thyroid-equivalent region of the endostyle.
   

2000   
79<168  
Thyroid hormones and metamorphosis of sea urchin larvae.  

2004   
57<198 
Heterochronic developmental shift caused by thyroid hormone in larval sand dollars and its implications for phenotypic plasticity and the evolution of nonfeeding development.   

2004   
55<198  
Thyroid hormones determine developmental mode in sand dollars (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).   

2005   
49<198 
Left-right asymmetry in the sea urchin embryo is regulated by nodal signaling on the right side.   

2006   
44<198  
Triphenyltin alters androgen metabolism in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.   

2006   
42<198  
Endogenous thyroid hormone synthesis in facultative planktotrophic larvae of the sand dollar Clypeaster rosaceus: implications for the evolutionary loss of larval feeding.   

2006   
41<198  
Thyroid hormone metabolism and peroxidase function in two non-chordate animals.   


2006    39<198  
A genomic view of the sea urchin nervous system. 
    Abstract: 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16965768      
    "
The neurobiology of sea urchins is of particular interest because they have a close phylogenetic relationship with chordates, yet a distinctive pentaradiate body plan and unusual neural organization."  
    "
A family of genes encoding voltage-gated ion channels is present but, surprisingly, genes encoding gap junction proteins (connexins and pannexins) appear to be absent.  
    Genes required for synapse formation and function have been identified and genes for synthesis and transport of neurotransmitters are present.  
    There is a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors, including 874 rhodopsin-type receptors, 28 metabotropic glutamate-like receptors and a remarkably expanded group of 161 secretin receptor-like proteins."  
    "There are at least 37 putative G-protein-coupled peptide receptors and precursors for several neuropeptides and peptide hormones have been identified
, including ... a vasotocin-like peptide, glycoprotein hormones, and insulin/insulin-like growth factors. Identification of a neurotrophin-like gene and Trk receptor in sea urchin indicates that this neural signaling system is not unique to chordates.
    Several hundred chemoreceptor genes have been predicted using several approaches, a number similar to that for other animals.
"          

    Full length article:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1950334/?tool=pubmed   
    My comment
There's quite a lot here about hormones as well as neurotransmitters, but no mention of steroids.     
 

2007    36<198  
Gametogenesis correlated with steroid levels during the gonadal cycle of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).   

2008   
30<198  
The amphioxus genome enlightens the evolution of the thyroid hormone signaling pathway. 

2009   
27<198  
Effects of 17beta-estradiol, and its metabolite, 4-hydroxyestradiol on fertilization, embryo development and oxidative DNA damage in sand dollar (Dendraster excentricus) sperm. 

2009   
20<198  
Endocrine interactions between plants and animals: Implications of exogenous hormone sources for the evolution of hormone signaling. 

2010   
19<198      Free Article 
Evolution of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 1 and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 3.  

2014   
9<198  
Neuropeptides and polypeptide hormones in echinoderms: new insights from analysis of the transcriptome of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. 

2014   
6<198  
Characterization of insulin-like peptides (ILPs) in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus: insights on the evolution of the insulin family. 

2014   
4<198  
Evolution of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone receptor and its ligand. 

2015   
1<198  
Unraveling estradiol metabolism and involvement in the reproductive cycle of non-vertebrate animals: The sea urchin model.




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