Steroids

Cross references:  Steroid Actions  Hormones in General
  Intracellular Receptors   Cholesterol   Testosterone Receptor  
 
Testosterone Transcription Factor    Evolution of Hormones     

Steroid (Wiki) 
"Examples of steroids include cholesterol, the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone.
"
Hundreds of distinct steroids are found in plants, animals, and fungi.

"
Some of the common categories of steroids: Animal steroids
Steroids include estrogen, cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone. Estrogen and progesterone are made primarily in the ovary and in the placenta during pregnancy, and testosterone in the testes. Testosterone is also converted into estrogen to regulate the supply of each, in the bodies of both females and males.  


List of steroid abbreviations (Wiki)    
All of the links in the table, below, are active. 

Trivial Name Abbreviation(s) Systematic Name
Cholesterol Chol[1] 5-cholesten-3beta-ol
Progestins
Pregnenolone P5[2] or Preg[3] 3beta-hydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one
17-hydroxypregnenolone 17-OHP5[4] or 17P5[5] 3beta,17-dihydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one
Progesterone P4[6] or P[3] 4-pregnene-3,20-dione
17-hydroxyprogesterone 17-OHP4[4] or 17OHP[7] or 17P4[5] 17-hydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione
Androgens
Androstenedione A4[8] or AE[9] 4-androstene-3,17-dione
4-hydroxy-Androstenedione 4-OH-A[3]
11β-hydroxyandrostenedione 11βOHA4[12] or 11βOHΔ4[10] or OHA[11] 11beta-4-androstene-3,17-dione
Androstanediol Adiol[13] 3-beta,17-beta-Androstanediol
Androsterone AN[9] 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one
Epiandrosterone EPIA[14] 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one
Adrenosterone AT[citation needed] 4-androstene-3,11,17-trione
Dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA[15] or DHA[16] 3beta-hydroxy-5-androsten-17-one
Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulphate DHEAS[8] or DHAS[16] 3beta-sulfooxy-5-androsten-17-one
Testosterone T[4] 17beta-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one
Epitestosterone epiT[17] 17alpha-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one
5α-dihydrotestosterone DHT[15] or 5α-DHT[18] 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one
5β-dihydrotestosterone 5β-DHT[18] 17beta-hydroxy-5beta-androstan-3-one
11β-hydroxytestosterone OHT[11] or 11β-OHT[19] 11beta,17beta-dihydroxy-4-androsten-3-one
11-ketotestosterone 11-KT[20] 17beta-hydroxy-4-androsten-3,17-dione
Estrogens
Estrone E1[6] 3-hydroxy-1,3,5(10)-estratrien-17-one
Estradiol E2[4] 1,3,5(10)-estratriene-3,17beta-diol
Estriol E3[6] 1,3,5(10)-estratriene-3,16alpha,17beta-triol
Corticosteroids
Corticosterone B[7] or CORT[21] 11beta,21-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione
Deoxycorticosterone DOC[7] 21-hydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione
Cortisol F[7] 11beta,17,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione
11-Deoxycortisol S[25] 17,21-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione
Cortisone E[7] 17,21-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,11,20-trione
18-hydroxycorticosterone 18OHB[22] or 18B[23] 11beta,18,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione
1α-hydroxycorticosterone 1α-B[24] 1alpha,11beta,,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione
Aldosterone A[7] or ALDO[26] 18,11-hemiacetal of 11beta,21-dihydroxy-3,20-dioxo-4-pregnen-18-al


2003    22<48  
Evolution of adrenal and sex steroid action in vertebrates: a ligand-based mechanism for complexity.  
    "
Various explanations have been proposed to account for complex differentiation and development in humans, despite the human genome containing only two to three times the number of genes in invertebrates. Ignored are the actions of adrenal and sex steroids-androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and progestins-which act through receptors that arose from an ancestral nuclear receptor in a protochordate. This ligand-based mechanism is unique to vertebrates and was integrated into the already robust network of transcription factors in invertebrates. Adrenal and sex steroids influence almost all aspects of vertebrate differentiation and development. I propose that evolution of this ligand-based mechanism in a primitive vertebrate was an important contribution to vertebrate complexity. Sequencing of genomes from a cephalochordate, such as amphioxus, and from hagfish and lamprey will establish early events in the evolution of steroid hormone signaling, and also allow genetic studies to elucidate how vertebrate complexity depends on steroid hormones."  








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